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Released: 4/1/2014 8:00 AM EDT
Source Newsroom: Michigan Technological University

http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/615881/?sc=swtn

Newswise — As the Earth’s human population marches toward 9 billion, the need for hardy new varieties of grain crops has never been greater.

It won’t be enough to yield record harvests under perfect conditions. In an era of climate change, pollution and the global spread of pathogens, these new grains must also be able to handle stress. Now, researchers at Michigan Technological University have identified a set of genes that could be key to the development of the next generation of super rice.

A meta-data analysis by biologist Ramakrishna Wusirika and PhD student Rafi Shaik has uncovered more than 1,000 genes in rice that appear to play key roles in managing its response to two different kinds of stress: biotic, generally caused by infectious organisms like bacteria; and abiotic, caused by environmental agents, like nutrient deficiency, flood and salinity.

Traditionally, scientists have believed that different sets of genes regulated plants’ responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, Wusirika and Shaik discovered that 1,377 of the approximately 3,800 genes involved in rice’s stress response played a role in both types stress. “These are the genes we think are involved in the cross talk between biotic and abiotic stesses,” said Wusirika.

About 70 percent of those “master” genes are co-expressive—they turn on under both kinds of stress. Typically, the others turn on for biotic stress and turn off for abiotic stress.

The scientists looked at the genes’ response to five abiotic stresses—drought, heavy metal contamination, salt, cold and nutrient deprivation—and five biotic stresses—bacteria, fungus, insect predation, weed competition and nematodes. A total of 196 genes showed a wide range of expressions to these stresses.

“The top genes are likely candidates for developing a rice variety with broad stress-range tolerance,” Wusirika said.

Next, they would like to test their findings. “We want to do experimental analysis to see if five or 10 of the genes work as predicted,” he said.

Their study is described in the paper, “Machine Learning Approaches Distinguish Multiple Stress Conditions using Stress-Resposive Genes and Identify Candidate Genes for Broad Resistance in Rice,” published in the January edition of Plant Physiology.

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Reported by pestnet@yahoogroups.com by Grahame Jackson <gjackson@zip.com.au>

March 5th, 2014 in Biology / Ecology

This is a root of a banana plant infected by the nematode Radopholus similis. The roundworms infect the roots and kill root tissue.

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Credit: Rony Swennen and Dirk De Waele

The banana variety Yangambi km5 produces toxic substances that kill the nematode Radopholus similis, a roundworm that infects the root tissue of banana plants – to the frustration of farmers worldwide. The finding bodes well for the Grande Naine, the export banana par excellence, which is very susceptible to the roundworms.
The parasitic nematode Radopholus similis is the invisible nemesis of the banana plant, says Professor Dirk De Waele (Laboratory for Tropical Crop Improvement, KU Leuven), a co-author of the study: “This roundworm infects banana crops worldwide. The nematodes are invisible to the naked eye, but they can penetrate the roots of banana plants by the thousands. Once infected, these plants absorb less water and nutrients, resulting in yield losses of up to 75 percent. Lesions in the roots also make the plant more susceptible to other diseases. Eventually, the roots begin to rot. In the final stage of the disease, the plant topples over, its fruit bunch inexorably lost.”
Combating nematodes isn’t easy, adds Professor Rony Swennen (Laboratory for Tropical Crop Improvement, KU Leuven), another co-author: “Synthetic pesticides are toxic and expensive. Moreover, pesticides usually do not actually kill the nematodes, they just temporarily paralyze them. Nematodes can also build up resistance to pesticides.”

This is a banana field in Uganda planted with Grande Naine, a banana variety commonly sold in the supermarket. The nematode Radopholus similis infects the roots of banana plants. In the final stage of disease, the plant topples over and its fruit bunch is lost.

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Credit: Rony Swennen and Dirk De Waele

While the Grande Naine is very susceptible to nematodes, other varieties are known to be resistant to them. Enter the Yangambi km5, a variety first grown in the 1950′s at a Belgian research station in Yangambi, DR Congo. The researchers compared the two banana varieties and studied their defense responses to Radopholus similis. “Researchers have always wondered how the Yangambi km5 manages to fight off roundworms,” says De Waele. “This study goes a long way in answering that.”
With colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology (Germany), the KU Leuven researchers identified which metabolites are responsible for fighting off the nematodes. “We found nine different nematode-killing metabolites in Yangambi km5. These metabolites are also produced in the Grande Naine, but much more slowly and in lesser quantities. In that banana variety, the nematodes win the fight.”
The new knowledge of metabolites will be helpful in developing edible and pest-resistant banana varieties, says Swennen. “The next step is to screen other banana varieties for metabolites. This method could also be applied to other crops and other species of nematode. Nematodes pose a growing threat to rice production in Asia, for example. Our findings also provide the industry with perspectives to develop a generation of new pesticides against nematodes.”
The researchers’ findings were published in a recent issue of the journal PNAS.
More information: PNAS DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1314168110
Provided by KU Leuven

 

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SciDev

[LAGOS] Nigerian farmers who tested new maize crops resistant to the widespread Striga plant parasite are so enthusiastic about their increased crop yields that they are selling more seeds than the official distribution channels.

The crops were developed in the Nigerian laboratories of the International Institute for Agricultural Research (IITA). They dramatically cut maize losses from the root-infecting Striga, or witchweed, during two years of trial cultivation by farmers in Borno State in northern Nigeria.

Nigeria’s Institute for Agricultural Research began distributing the new parasite-resistant maize seeds in December 2008.

Abebe Menkir, the lead scientist on the research project at IITA, told SciDev.Net that some farmers in Borno state were already producing large quantities of resistant seeds and selling them on to farmers in and outside the region. He was unable to say how many seeds are being — and will be — distributed through official channels.

“The farmers say they couldn’t wait for the official release of seedlings because the variety is successful, cutting losses,” says Menkir.

Menkir said the next step was to distribute the parasite-resistant maize in other countries in West and Central Africa.

The varieties, known as Sammaz 15 and 16 contain genes that diminish the growth of parasitic flowering plants such as Striga, which attaches to the maize root. Both Sammaz varieties tolerate heavy Striga infestations without suffering crop losses.

“A normal maize variety without resistance to Striga can sustain from 60 per cent to 100 per cent grain yield loss in farmers’ fields that are severely infested,” Menkir told SciDev.Net. Sammaz 16 loses just ten per cent of yield in an extreme invasion.

Sammaz 16 is a late-maturing variety requiring 110 to 120 days of growth, whereas Sammaz 15 can often be harvested at 100 days and is more suitable for regions with short growing periods or unpredictable water supplies.

Agronomy researcher Michael Aken’Ova from the faculty of agriculture at the University of Ibadan, said that producing resistant and tolerant cultivars such as Sammaz is the most economically feasible, easily accessible, safe and sustainable approach to combat losses due to Striga, particularly compared to labour-intensive methods such as weeding.

He added that he is sure that the resistant crops will soon make it to the farmers who need them, with the aid of leaflets, radio magazine programmes and messages in local languages.

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Flickr/Sustainable Sanitation Alliance

Speed read

 

 

  • GM eggplant can cut the use of pesticides and save farmers money
  • Farmers said they would switch to growing GM eggplant, once they learnt this
  • Critics say biotech firms are using farmers to coax a shift to GMO foods

[MANILA] A study contends that 96 per cent of Filipino farmers are willing to shift to a genetically modified eggplant and are willing to pay double the seed price if it means a substantial cut in spending on pesticide. 

The study, featured in a book launched last month (6 February) by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications and the Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, refers to the GM eggplant which have been genetically modified to resist infestations of the fruit and shoot borer. The said moth species is considered the most damaging pest attacking eggplants in South-East and South Asia. Its larvae feed inside the eggplant, making the fruit unmarketable and unfit for human consumption. At times, yield loss could be total.

The majority of eggplant farmers, the study says, had no prior knowledge of GM eggplant yet expressed an interest in adopting it when informed of its resistance to fruit and shoot borers.

But while proponents consider the GM eggplant ideal for pest management and say it is non-toxic to humans, opponents of genetically modified organisms (GMO) say otherwise.

Lorena Villareal, executive director of the NGO Alay Bayan-Luzon Inc., which is involved in advocacy work and community mobilisation programs, says studies are being used to encourage farmers to the shift to GM foods, while downplaying suspected long-term impact of GMOs on health and contamination of the environment.

“We would like to have consciousness-raising awareness for farmers to explain the difference between producing for income and producing for consumption,” says Villareal, adding that while it is natural that farmers would like to earn big, they also have a social responsibility.

But Saturnina Halos, chairwoman of the Department of Agriculture’s biotechnology advisory team, says farmers are willing to adopt the GM eggplant even at a higher price as they understand this could result in significant savings on pesticides and see the potential for developing the market for the variety.

Field testing of GM eggplant has ceased in the Philippines following a court order in May 2013 upholding a petition filed by Greenpeace and other groups. The court ordered a stop to field trials of GM eggplant “in the absence of full scientific certainty that they are safe to humans and the environment”.

It used evidence from a paper published by a team led by French scientist and molecular biology professor Gilles-Eric Seralini that said that rats fed with GM maize developed cancer tumours to reach its decisions Food and Chemical Toxicology journal retracted the paper in November 2013 following criticisms on the paper’s methodology by other scientists. The journal’s editor said that the results presented were “inconclusive”.

Emil Javier, president of the National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines, tells SciDev.Net: “The retraction by a journal of a research study that was cited by the Philippine court for its decision to ban the GM eggplant field trials goes to show that the objection of Greenpeace, which quoted extensively the Seralini research, really has no basis.”

Mark Lynas, a British journalist and formerly against GMOs, now urges scientists to be more active in debates and explain the importance of their work as they are losing the public relations to anti-GMO groups.

On the GM eggplant, scientists “must explain that the GMO route is essential to reduce pesticide applications that are currently endangering the health of farmers and consumers alike” he says.
 
Link to the book

This article has been produced by SciDev.Net’s South-East Asia & Pacific desk.

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From: KCUR 89.3FM Kansas City Public Media

Part of the npr digital network

New Crops Could Kill Insects By Targeting Their Genes

Credit Grant Gerlock / Harvest Public Media
Southern corn rootworm beetles eat corn laced with RNA in a lab at the University of Nebraska Lincoln. Scientists want to know how long it takes for rootworms to evolve resistance to RNA-interference technology.

With rootworms building resistance to genetically modified corn that makes its own pesticide, seed companies are working on new crops that target the insects’ genes. But some worry about unintended consequences when the technology moves from the lab to the field.

Rootworms are a constant nemesis of farmers in Nebraska and across the Midwest. Their larvae feed on the roots of corn plants. A decade ago, researchers developed Bt corn – corn genetically modified to produce a protein that kills the bugs, allowing farmers to back off chemical pesticides. But like every other pesticide that’s been tried against rootworms, the effectiveness of Bt corn is beginning to wear off, leading farmers across the Corn Belt to go back to chemicals that can be harmful to humans and wildlife.

Seed companies are preparing a new solution: RNA-interference, sometimes called gene silencing. Researchers using the technology introduce a strand of RNA that essentially stops an organism ingesting the molecule from expressing a certain gene.

Genes are expressed through RNA that are transcribed from DNA. But if you introduce a piece of interfering RNA, a gene can be suppressed. RNA-interference, or RNAi, is a natural way plants and animals fight off viruses, but scientists use it as a genetic on/off switch to study and manipulate plants.

Tom Clemente, a researcher in plant biotechnology at the University of Nebraska Lincoln, says RNAi was discovered in plants when researchers were trying to make flowers darker.

“They were trying to make a darker, purple flower and they were getting white flowers,” Clemente said. “They were trying to make more of this protein and they were making zero of the protein.”

Now, RNAi is being studied to treat human diseases from cancer to high cholesterol.RNAi crops are already in the field.

“The classic example is for virus resistance,” Clemente said. “In the state of Hawaii the entire papaya population is papaya ringspot virus (resistant) and it is a form of RNAi that provides that resistance.”

But corn could be the first crop to attack an invading insect with RNA. For instance,Monsanto hopes to commercialize rootworm resistant corn with RNAi by the end of the decade. When a rootworm eats the corn roots, it would ingest interfering RNA that would silence a gene the rootworm can’t live without.

“It blocks expression of that particular gene – no other gene – and impedes the life cycle of that rootworm,” Clemente said.

But Jon Lundgren, an entomologist at a USDA research lab in Brookings, S.D., says regulators should evaluate RNAi crops with caution. He is looking at whether RNAi aimed at one insect could have off-target effects on other insects, like bees or butterflies.

“Where else in the genome is going to be silenced inadvertently, and what effects is that going to have on the function of our natural biological systems?” Lundgren asked.

When one gene is silenced by interfering RNA, Lundgren says, sometimes a completely unrelated gene is altered in unpredictable ways, and that needs more consideration before these crops move from the lab to the field.

“Our really poor knowledge of genomes within most organisms, nearly all organisms, really begs the question of how we’re going to predict all of these potential effects,” Lundgren said.

That question goes to the Environmental Protection Agency. At a meeting in January, scientists from around the world will advise the EPA on how to assess the potential risks of RNAi crops.

For his part, Tom Clemente doesn’t believe the technology warrants extra scrutiny.

“You can dial it in to be very specific for a gene in a particular organism,” Clemente said. “Now, we can never say with a straight face that would mitigate any collateral damage in any other organism. But you can mitigate that probability to a very, very small number.”

Clemente says, when paired with Bt in corn, RNAi would give farmers a more durable weapon against rootworms. What regulators may want to know is if they can be sure it’s safe for the other bugs that call a cornfield home.

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AgProfessional.com
Purdue University  |   December 19, 2013

Purdue University researchers have confirmed the long-held hypothesis that sorghum deters insects from feeding on its leaves by releasing hydrogen cyanide.

Mitch Tuinstra and Brian Dilkes found that insects preferred the leaves of a mutant sorghum plant with an abnormally slow release of cyanide to those of a wild-type sorghum plant with a normal cyanide-release rate. Fall army worms fed on the leaves of the mutant sorghum even though the leaves contained similar levels of dhurrin – the chemical compound responsible for synthesizing hydrogen cyanide – as those in normal sorghum plants.

“This study separates for the first time the accumulation of dhurrin from the release of hydrogen cyanide,” said Dilkes, assistant professor of horticulture and landscape architecture. “Both the mutant and normal sorghum plants contain dhurrin, but it’s the rate of cyanide release that causes the insects to avoid one in favor of the other. It’s a beautiful interaction between animal behavior and plant chemistry.”

Sorghum bicolor, the cultivated species of sorghum, is a critically important cereal grass used for food and animal forage in many parts of the developing world and is a promising bioenergy crop in the U.S. Its ability to thrive in arid environments makes it a more water-efficient crop than corn.

While the grain of sorghum is edible, its leaves can sometimes contain levels of hydrogen cyanide that are toxic to humans and animals. Livestock producers have long known that feeding sorghum leaves harvested at certain growth stages, and particularly under stress conditions such as drought, can result in cyanide poisoning of livestock. When properly managed, however, sorghum leaves can be safe forage for cattle.

Identification of genes that control cyanide production and release could lead to the development of cyanide-free sorghum plants.

Tuinstra and Dilkes identified a sorghum mutant with an exceptionally slow cyanide-release rate. They located the gene responsible for the defect by using next-generation sequencing, a technique that randomly generates short sequences from a genome – the total genetic content of an organism – and stitches them back together. Next-generation sequencing works like a text editor, said Tuinstra, professor of plant breeding and genetics.

“It’s just like taking a 10-word sentence from a book and asking where it belongs,” he said. “It finds the location of a specific sequence inside the species genome. The mutation is like a misplaced period in the middle of a sentence – it signals the reader to stop. In the case of the sorghum mutant, it halts the production of a functional protein.”

The sequencing technique allowed Tuinstra and Dilkes to identify the single nucleotide within the sorghum genome of 790 million base pairs that slowed the release of cyanide in the mutant plant.

“This study is an example of how new methods in DNA sequencing can now be used to unlock the genetic mechanisms of sorghum performance,” Tuinstra said.

After cloning the mutant, the researchers tested insect feeding preference by releasing fall army worms onto mutant and normal sorghum plants. Though both types of sorghum contained normal levels of dhurrin, the insects avoided the normal sorghum plants, settling and feeding on the leaves of the mutant sorghum instead. While the mutant contains the compounds necessary to generate cyanide, it cannot release cyanide quickly enough to ward off pests, Tuinstra said.

Next-generation sequencing is more often used in plant species with genomes much smaller than sorghum. The study clears the way to use advanced sequencing techniques to identify genes and gene functions in plants with large genomes, Dilkes said.

“We’ve demonstrated that these sequencing tools are robust enough to apply to organisms with complex genomes,” he said. “If we can use them in sorghum, we can use them in other crops. In terms of identifying genes of interest in complex organisms, we’re open for business.”

The paper was published in Genetics and is available athttp://www.genetics.org/content/195/2/309.full.pdf+html?sid=39121ec4-c3f7-43f8-a7d0-8e5107d03b40 .

The research was conducted using funds from the U.S. Department of Energy, the International Sorghum and Millet Collaboration Research Support Program and an Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant.

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Organizing Institutions:

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

Association Marocaine de la Protection des Plantes (AMPP)

The International Plant Resistance to Insects working group (IPRI)


Second Announcement

Insect pests are among the most limiting constraints to crop production, inflicting losses of billions of dollars worldwide. Pesticides are routinely used to reduce the damaging impacts of pests, but if not used judiciously, they are not sustainable as they pose risks to human, animals and to the wild life in general. Host plant resistance (HPR) has been the most economical and environmentally friendly means of controlling pests.  

In view of the importance of the use of genetic resistance for the control of insect pests, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA), Morocco, the Moroccan Association of Plant Protection (MMPP) and the International Plant Resistance to Insects Working Group are organizing the 21st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop, which will be held in Marrakech, Morocco 14-18 April, 2014.

This workshop is planned to review the progress and recent advances in the area of host plant resistance to insect pests, and to develop international collegiality among HPR researchers. The areas that will be covered during the workshop are:

  • Screening methodologies for resistance to insect pests and sources of resistance
  • Breeding for resistance to insect pests through conventional and molecular strategies
  • Mechanisms of resistance
  • Deployment strategies of resistance genes


Venue

 The workshop will be held at the Hotel Kenzi Farah in Marrakech, one of the major cities in the northwest African nation of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country after CasablancaFes and Rabat, and is the capital of the mid-southwestern economic region of Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz. It is located to the North of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains. Founded in 1070–72 by the Almoravids, Marrakesh remained a political, economic and cultural center for a long period. Its influence was felt throughout the western Muslim world, from North Africa to Andalusia. It has several impressive monuments dating from that period: the Koutoubiya Mosque, the Kasbah, the battlements, monumental doors,gardens, etc. Later architectural jewels include the Badiâ Palace, the Ben Youssef Madrasa, the Saadian Tombs, several great residences and Place Jamaâ El Fna, a veritable open-air theater.

 Date

 The conference will be held from Monday 14thto Friday 18thof April 2014 (14thto 16th: workshop and 17thto 18th: Touristic and field visits).

Accommodation

 21st  biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop

Marrakech- Morocco , 14 – 18 April, 2014

 ACCOMMODATIONS RESERVATION FORM

Please return this form to the Business Travel and Events by fax +212 5 37 77 71 42, or e-mail your reservation to businesstravelevent@gmail.com

If you have any questions, please contact Mrs Hanane LAAIDI at Tel: +212 6 62 06 00 89

 

IMPORTANT: Please read the following information before completing this form:

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·        The exclusive 21st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop rates are available for 14 – 18 April, 2014

·        All reservations must be made before Junary 30th, 2014 to ensure that your room is secured with the 21 Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insect Workshop Morocco room rate, or until room block is sold out; whichever comes first. 

For any reservations received after the cut-off day, both rooms and rates will be subject to availability.

·        Your reservations will be confirmed ONLY when you receive a final confirmation message with the confirmation number from us.

·        Check-in time is 3:00 pm and check-out time by Midday.

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 Hotel KENZI FARAH: 5*

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Hotel LES JARDINS DE L’AGDAL: 5*

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 Hotel RYAD MOGADOR KASBAH: 4*

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16,50 MAD Tourist Tax per person per night

 

Hotel Golden tulip Rawabi: 4*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       650 MAD * per room, per night

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 Hotel RED HOTEL: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       595 MAD * per room, per night

  Hotel ALMAS: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       550 MAD * per room, per night

Hotel AL KABIR: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       440 MAD * per room, per night


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 CANCELLATION POLICY

No penalty will be charged for cancellation received 1 Month prior to the arrival date.

Cancellations received 1 month to 72 hours prior to arrival date will incur a one night room rate penalty. Cancellations received 72 hours prior to arrival date will incur a two night room rate penalty.

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Weather

The average daily temperature in April ranges from 24°C to 30°C.

 Visas

For each nationalities needing visas for Morocco, please contact the Moroccan Consulate in your country. Please ensure that you have a valid passport (with at least 6 months before expiry). If you need to apply for visas at Moroccan Embassies and you need invitation letters, please contact us at: ipri2014logistics@gmail.com

 General information

For more information about logistics please contact us at:

ipri2014logistics@gmail.com

Tél: 00 212 537 68 16 59

  Honorary Committee :

Prof. Mohamed Sadiki, General Secretary, Ministère de l’Agriculture  et de la Pèche Maritime,  Maroc

Prof. Mohamed Badraoui, Director General, INRA-Morocco

Dr. Mahmoud Solh, Director General, ICARDA

 International Steering Committee:

Anna-Maria Botha
Department of Genetics
Faculty of AgriSciences
Stellenbosch University
Private Bag X1
Matieland, 7601, South Africa
anna.oberholster@up.ac.za

Dolores Mornhinweg
Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit
USDA-ARS
1301 N. Western Rd.
Stillwater OK 74075-2714

Richard O. Musser
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Macomb, IL 61455
RO-Musser@wiu.edu

Nora Lapitan
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
nlapitan@nsf.gov

 

Mustapha El Bouhssini
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria
m.bohssini@cgiar.org

Herb Eichenseer
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Johnston, IA 50131-0085
herb.eichenseer@pioneer.com

Christie Williams
USDA-ARS
Dept. of Entomology
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
christie.williams@ars.usda.gov

 

Local Organizing and Scientific Committee:

S. Lhaloui, INRA, Settat (Chair): slhaloui@yahoo.com

M. El Bouhssini, ICARDA, Rabat (Co-chair): M.bohssini@cgiar.org

M. Nachit, ICARDA, Rabat: M.Nachit@cgiar.org

S. Udupa, ICARDA, Rabat: S.Udupa@cgiar.org

N. Nsarellah, INRA, Settat: nsarellah@yahoo.com

M. Mihi, AMPP, Rabat: mohamed.mihi12@gmail.com

F. Abbad Andaloussi, INRA, Rabat: abbadandaloussi@yahoo.fr

C. Kradi, INRA, Rabat: kradi@inra.ma

 

IPRI Workshop 2014 Abstract and Poster Guidelines:

All IPRI Workshop 2014 participants are invited to submit abstracts for the Oral and Poster Sessions. Abstract must be sent in a single .doc or .docx file. Abstracts should be written in Standard English in MS Word, page size A4 (21 x 29.7 cm), font Times New Roman 12 pt., and single line spacing throughout. The margins should be 2.5 cm. Authors are responsible for the content and layout. All abstracts will be reviewed by the Abstract Coordinators. Accepted abstracts will be presented at the Oral or Poster Sessions at the workshop.

 

Abstract submission deadline: 30 November, 2013.

Abstract length: maximum: 250 words.

Author: initials (with periods) surname

Multiple authors: Two names: use “and” (no commas); Three or more names: Separate by commas except the last names, use “and”

Affiliation: Identify each author’s institution with full postal address. Separate addresses with semicolons.

Research correspondence: Give e-mail address of corresponding author.

————————————————————————————————-

Example:

Characterization of the wheat multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34/Yr18/Pm38

J. Risk1, L. Selter2, S. Krattinger1,2, B. Keller2 and E. Lagudah1

1CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; 2Institute of Plant

Biology, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland. E-mail:

Joanna.Risk@csiro.au

References: If references are necessary, embed in the abstract in parentheses, e.g.  (Elboutahiri et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:15).

——————————————————————————————————

Finished poster dimensions: 88 cm wide x 120 cm tall.

Send abstracts as a MS Word file attached to an e-mail to the Abstract Coordinators at ipri2014abstracts@gmail.com

Direct questions to the Abstract Coordinators, ipri2014abstracts@gmail.com      

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From Plantwise
http://blog.plantwise.org/2013/09/27/new-strategy-required-for-delaying-insect-resistance-to-bt-crops/

via Grahame Jackson:  pestnet@yahoogroups.com

September 27, 2013 by Claire Curry

Kenyan farmer Mary Ngare in her maize field damaged by stem borers © CIMMYT (CC BY-NC-SA)

Kenyan farmer Mary Ngare in her maize field damaged by stem borers © CIMMYT (CC BY-NC-SA)

Transgenic Bt crops have been grown around the world since the 1990s and have contributed to increased yields by controlling agricultural pests. Due to the importance of this technology, there has been continuous study into the development of resistance to Bt crops and how best to avoid this happening. A recent investigation into the rapid spread of Bt resistance in South Africa has revealed one of the more surprising discoveries to date, that the maize stalk borer (Busseola fusca) has evolved Bt maize resistance inherited as a dominant trait for the first time. This has significant impacts on the management of Bt crops, as current methods for sustaining susceptibility rely on the recessive inheritance of Bt resistance.

The first report of the resistance of maize stalk borer to Bt maize was in 2007 but for the majority of Bt maize fields resistance is not a problem. Methods for delaying resistance have been successful, keeping levels of susceptibility high. The method currently in use is the “high dose/refuge” insect resistance management (IRM) strategy, where susceptible insects can survive and breed in non-Bt refuges. This method relies on resistance being conferred by a recessive gene, so that when a susceptible pest mates with a resistant pest, the offspring are susceptible (see table). The high dose part of the name refers to the level of toxin the plant is producing. The toxin level must be sufficiently high to kill the Rr offspring, because if two Rr individuals mate, a quarter of their offspring will be rr – resistant individuals.

Inheritance of recessive resistance, where the recessive gene ‘r’ confers resistance and the dominant gene ‘R’ confers susceptibility

However, this method may fall down when dealing with non-recessive resistance inheritance, like that observed in South Africa. The discovery of dominantly inherited resistance of the maize stalk borer to Bt maize has raised more questions and opened new areas for study. The closing paragraph of the Campagne et al. paper highlights the importance of employing IRM strategies that include cases of non-recessive resistance and the necessity to consider IRM and IPM (integrated pest management) strategies, such as parasitic wasps, together. It is also possible that in the shorter term farmers in South Africa may have to move from the single toxin Bt maize they have been growing, to a double toxin variety to keep stalk borer numbers down.

Bt maize explained
Bt maize is one of the most widely grown transgenic crops. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces crystalline proteins (cry proteins) that are toxic to insects. These proteins have been used to control agricultural pests since the 1960s, when they were applied to the crops in a spray. Nowadays some crops are able to produce their own cry proteins as they have had the cry protein-producing gene from B. thuringiensis integrated into their own set of genes. Bt crops are popular with many farmers as they require less pesticide, resulting in economic, health and environmental benefits.
To find out more about Bt crops visit Nature’s website.

van Rensburg JBJ (2007) First report of field resistance by the stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to Bt-transgenic maize. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 24 (3) 147-151.
Campagne P, Kruger M, Pasquet R, Le Ru B, Van den Berg J (2013) Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Corn in Busseola fusca. PLoS ONE 8 (7) e69675.

 

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Organizing Institutions:

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)

Association Marocaine de la Protection des Plantes (AMPP)

The International Plant Resistance to Insects working group (IPRI)

Marrakech- Morocco, 14-18 April, 2014

 Second Announcement

Insect pests are among the most limiting constraints to crop production, inflicting losses of billions of dollars worldwide. Pesticides are routinely used to reduce the damaging impacts of pests, but if not used judiciously, they are not sustainable as they pose risks to human, animals and to the wild life in general. Host plant resistance (HPR) has been the most economical and environmentally friendly means of controlling pests.  

In view of the importance of the use of genetic resistance for the control of insect pests, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA), Morocco, the Moroccan Association of Plant Protection (MMPP) and the International Plant Resistance to Insects Working Group are organizing the 21st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop, which will be held in Marrakech, Morocco 14-18 April, 2014.

This workshop is planned to review the progress and recent advances in the area of host plant resistance to insect pests, and to develop international collegiality among HPR researchers. The areas that will be covered during the workshop are:

  • Screening methodologies for resistance to insect pests and sources of resistance
  • Breeding for resistance to insect pests through conventional and molecular strategies
  • Mechanisms of resistance
  • Deployment strategies of resistance genes

 Venue

The workshop will be held at the Hotel Kenzi Farahin Marrakech, one of themajor cities in the northwest African nation of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country after CasablancaFes and Rabat, and is the capital of the mid-southwestern economic region of Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz. It is located to the North of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains. Founded in 1070–72 by the Almoravids, Marrakesh remained a political, economic and cultural center for a long period. Its influence was felt throughout the western Muslim world, from North Africa to Andalusia. It has several impressive monuments dating from that period: the Koutoubiya Mosque, the Kasbah, the battlements, monumental doors,gardens, etc. Later architectural jewels include the Badiâ Palace, the Ben Youssef Madrasa, the Saadian Tombs, several great residences and Place Jamaâ El Fna, a veritable open-air theater.

 Date

 The conference will be held from Monday 14thto Friday 18thof April 2014(14thto 16th:workshop and 17thto 18th: Touristic and field visits).

      Accommodation

 

 21st  biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop

Marrakech- Morocco , 14 – 18 April, 2014

 

ACCOMMODATIONS RESERVATION FORM

Please return this form to the Business Travel and Events by fax +212 5 37 77 71 42, or e-mail your reservation to businesstravelevent@gmail.com   If you have any questions, please contact Ms Hanane LAAIDI at Tel: +212 6 62 06 00 89

 IMPORTANT: Please read the following information before completing this form:

·        The reservation requires a one night deposit

·        Reservations can only be reserved with a credit card number and valid expiration date.

·        The exclusive 21 st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop rates are available for 14 – 18 April, 2014

·        All reservations must be made before  Junary 30th, 2014 to ensure that your room is secured with the 21 Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insect Workshop Morocco room rate, or until room block is sold out; whichever comes first. 

For any reservations received after the cut-off day, both rooms and rates will be subject to availability.

·        Your reservations will be confirmed ONLY when you receive a final confirmation message with the confirmation number from us.

·        Check-in time is 3:00 pm and check-out time by Midday.

(Please complete all fields with an *)

 Last Name*:      ______________________________First Name*:___________________________________

Organization:                                                                        __Title:                                                                 _________________

 Address:_                                       _____________________

Telephone*:_                                                                        __Fax Number*:      _______________

E-mail*:____________________________________________________________­________________

Arrival Date*:__                           __________________Flight/Time:                                                                     ______

Departure Date *:____________                                   Flight/Time:                                                                            ______

 Room Rate*:

 Hotel KENZI FARAH: 5*

 ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       1050 MAD * per room, per night

**The above rate does not include:

28,60 MAD Tourist Tax per person per night

 Hotel LES JARDINS DE L’AGDAL: 5*

 ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       1050 MAD * per room, per night

**The above rate does not include:

28,60 MAD Tourist Tax per person per night

 Hotel RYAD MOGADOR KASBAH: 4*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       600 MAD * per room, per night

**The above rate does not include:

16,50 MAD Tourist Tax per person per night

 Hotel Golden tulip rawabi: 4*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       650 MAD * per room, per night

**The above rate does not include:

16,50 MAD Tourist Tax per person per night

 Hotel RED HOTEL: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       595 MAD * per room, per night

 Hotel ALMAS: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       550 MAD * per room, per night

Hotel AL KABIR: 3*

ð Single Room with Breakfast:                                       440 MAD * per room, per night


 Preferred Room Category:       Bed Type                                         Room Type

                                                                                                    Single Room:  ð                                             Non-smoking room: ð

                                                                            Smoking room: ð

 

CANCELLATION POLICY

No penalty will be charged for cancellation received 1 Month prior to the arrival date.

Cancellations received 1 month to 72 hours prior to arrival date will incur a one night room rate penalty. Cancellations received 72 hours prior to arrival date will incur a two night room rate penalty.

 

GUARANTEE Please provide credit card information to secure your reservation:

I hereby authorize Business Travel and Event to charge my credit card account for accommodation charges in accordance with the Terms and Conditions.

(Business Travel & Event)       accepts    ðAmerican Express      ð  Master Card        ðVisa

 

Type of card: _________________________________________

Card number: _________________________________________  Valid until: ___ /______

Card holders name: ____________________________________

 

Signature: ___________________________________________   Date: ______________

 

 Weather

The average daily temperature in April ranges from 24°C to 30°C.

 Visas

For each nationalities needing visas for Morocco, please contact the Moroccan Consulate in your country. Please ensure that you have a valid passport (with at least 6 months before expiry). If you need to apply for visas at Moroccan Embassies and you need invitation letters, please contact us at: ipri2014logistics@gmail.com

 

 

General information

For more information about logistics please contact us at:

ipri2014logistics@gmail.com

Tél: 00 212 537 68 16 59

 

 Honorary Committee :

Prof. Mohamed Sadiki, General Secretary, Ministère de l’Agriculture  et de la Pèche Maritime,  Maroc

Prof. Mohamed Badraoui, Director General, INRA-Morocco

Dr. Mahmoud Solh, Director General, ICARDA

  International Steering Committee:

Anna-Maria Botha
Department of Genetics
Faculty of AgriSciences
Stellenbosch University
Private Bag X1
Matieland, 7601, South Africa
anna.oberholster@up.ac.za

Dolores Mornhinweg
Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit
USDA-ARS
1301 N. Western Rd.
Stillwater OK 74075-2714

Richard O. Musser
Department of Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University
Macomb, IL 61455
RO-Musser@wiu.edu

Nora Lapitan
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
nlapitan@nsf.gov

 

Mustapha El Bouhssini
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria
m.bohssini@cgiar.org

Herb Eichenseer
Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Johnston, IA 50131-0085
herb.eichenseer@pioneer.com

Christie Williams
USDA-ARS
Dept. of Entomology
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
christie.williams@ars.usda.gov

 

Local Organizing and Scientific Committee:

S. Lhaloui, INRA, Settat (Chair): slhaloui@yahoo.com

M. El Bouhssini, ICARDA, Rabat (Co-chair): M.bohssini@cgiar.org

M. Nachit, ICARDA, Rabat: M.Nachit@cgiar.org

S. Udupa, ICARDA, Rabat: S.Udupa@cgiar.org

N. Nsarellah, INRA, Settat: nsarellah@yahoo.com

M. Mihi, AMPP, Rabat: mohamed.mihi12@gmail.com

F. Abbad Andaloussi, INRA, Rabat: abbadandaloussi@yahoo.fr

C. Kradi, INRA, Rabat: kradi@inra.ma

 

 

IPRI Workshop 2014 Abstract and Poster Guidelines:

All IPRI Workshop 2014 participants are invited to submit abstracts for the Oral and Poster Sessions. Abstract must be sent in a single .doc or .docx file. Abstracts should be written in standard English in MS Word, page size A4 (21 x 29.7 cm), font Times New Roman 12 pt., and single line spacing throughout. The margins should be 2.5 cm. Authors are responsible for the content and layout. All abstracts will be reviewed by the Abstract Coordinators. Accepted abstracts will be presented at the Oral or Poster Sessions at the workshop.

 

Abstract submission deadline: 30 September, 2013.

Abstract length: maximum: 250 words.

Author: initials (with periods) surname

Multiple authors: Two names: use “and” (no commas); Three or more names: Separate by commas except the last names, use “and”

Affiliation: Identify each author’s institution with full postal address. Separate addresses with semicolons.

Research correspondence: Give e-mail address of corresponding author.

————————————————————————————————-

Example:

Characterization of the wheat multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34/Yr18/Pm38

J. Risk1, L. Selter2, S. Krattinger1,2, B. Keller2 and E. Lagudah1

1CSIRO Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; 2Institute of Plant

Biology, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland. E-mail:

Joanna.Risk@csiro.au

References: If references are necessary, embed in the abstract in parentheses, e.g.  (Elboutahiri et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:15).

——————————————————————————————————

Finished poster dimensions: 88 cm wide x 120 cm tall.

Send abstracts as a MS Word file attached to an e-mail to the Abstract Coordinators at ipri2014abstracts@gmail.com

Direct questions to the Abstract Coordinators, ipri2014abstracts@gmail.com


 

REGISTRATION FORM

Please return the completed form with payment to:

 

ICARDA Rabat Office
P.O. Box: 6299 Rabat-Institutes

/Rabat, Morocco
Tel: (212)5 37 68 29 09
Fax: (212)5 37 67 54 96

 

1. Participant Information

(Please print clearly in block capitals)

Last Name:                                            Prof/Dr/Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss/Other

First Name:

Organisation:

Position:

Postal Address:

City:                                         State:                            Country:                        Post Code:

Telephone:                                Fax:                              Mobile:

Email:

Name to appear on your name badge (e.g. John Smith):

 

Special Requirements (dietary or otherwise):

 

2. Participant Registration

(All prices are in US $. Registration fee does not include accommodation and excursions. In case of cancellation, refunds are possible until March 31st, 2014, except for a handling fee of 50.00 $. Full refunding for accompanying persons.

No refunds are allowed after March 31st, 2014).

 

NB. For Moroccan locals the payment arrangement will be indicated later.

 

 

Registration Type                                         Before March 31st                                           After April 1st

Regular participant                                              __ 300.00 $                                __ 400.00 $

Students                                                           __ 150.00 $                                __ 200.00 $

Accompanying person(s)                                      __ 100.00 $                                __ 100.00 $

SUB TOTAL:                                                                                                      

 

Money order payable to:

 

21st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop

 

Bank Name

HSBC Bank Plc

Bank Address

60 Queen Victoria Street London EC4N 4TR, England

Account No      

383-209-98

Sort Code  

40-05-15

Swift Code

MIDLGB22

IBAN:           

GB43 MIDL 4005 1538 3209 98

 

 

 

I understand and accept the conditions of the cancellation policy

 

Date                                                      Signature ____________________________________

 

 


 

21st Biennial International Plant Resistance to Insects Workshop

Marrakech, Morocco, 14-18 April, 2014

Application for Funding

 

Closing date for applications – January 31st2014

 

 

First Name:

 

 

Family Name:

 

 


Organization:

 

 

Address:

 

 

 

Telephone:

 

 

Fax:

 

 

E-mail:

 

 

Professional status:

 

 

Title/s of papers/posters to be presented:

 

 

 

 

 

Estimated cost of round trip travel (most economical)

 

 

What is the minimal amount of financial assistance you would be willing to accept? (Check one only)

 

 

Waiver of conference fees

 

Transportation to attend

 

 

 

All in-country costs

 

Cannot attend without full funding

 

 

 

 

 

I certify that the facts in this application are true and correct:

 

 

Signed:  _____________________________________

 

 

Endorsement by Supervisor/Head of Department

 

 

I confirm that the applicant’s University/Institute cannot cover full costs of attending the conference.

 

Name:

 

 

Position held:

 

Department:

 

 

E-mail:

 

Fax:

 

 

Date:

 

Signed:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Completed forms should be sent to:  Dr. Mustapha El Bouhssini with copy to Dr. Saadia Lhaloui at: ipri2014logistics@gmail.com

 

 

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Arab News — Saudi Arabia News, Middle East News, Opinion, Economy and more.

JEDDAH: ARAB NEWS

Saturday 6 July 2013

Last Update 6 July 2013 2:17 am

The Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs has founded a pest museum as part of its efforts to achieve broader environmental health awareness.
The ministry launched the pest museum project after conducting a study between 2009 and 2011 on pests commonly found in Najran, Jazan, Asir and the Baha provinces, Yahya Al-Hoqail, director of public health at the ministry, said in a statement to the Saudi Press Agency yesterday.
The project initially included a database on pests that are commonly combated by municipalities in various provinces before founding the museum at the ministry’s headquarters, aimed at raising awareness about the dangers posed to humans.
Exhibits at the museum were collected from the southern region over a period of 24 months. Captions detailing their places of breeding, geographical distribution and their peak breeding times are also supplied.
The ministry has also adopted an environmental-friendly strategy of integrated pest management using techniques such as engineering combat, genetic combat and biological combat. The strategy also stresses the minimal use of pesticides and choosing the most suitable pesticide where needed, said Al-Hoqail.
The museum also exhibits six publications issued by the ministry on public health management and spreading awareness about the dangers posed by pests, such as mosquitoes, fleas, rodents, stray animals and birds. The publications are also distributed to municipalities and other local administrations, besides being posted on Internet sites.

See: http://www.arabnews.com/news/457187

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