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Archive for the ‘IPM’ Category

The Gympie Times

12th Aug 2014 5:17 AM

http://www.gympietimes.com.au/news/new-lures-use-pheromones-trap-and-monitor-bugs/2348506/

NEW innovative lures for trapping major horticultural pests will soon give growers an effective tool for better on-farm integrated pest management.

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry business manager Jodie Campbell said the new traps would help growers control both banana spotting bugs and fruit spotting bugs, leading to less crop damage and improved productivity.

“Banana spotting bugs and fruit spotting bugs are two major pests of a wide range of tropical and subtropical crops including avocado, macadamia, papaya, mango, limes and custard apples,” she said.

“These pests were notoriously difficult to monitor, which is a large reason why growers in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Australia were forced to use broad-spectrum cover sprays.

“After more than 20 years of research and development, DAFF entomologists are now seeing very promising results from these new lures that use pheromones to trap and monitor the bugs.

“The pheromone lures have been effective in attracting both male and female spotting bugs and the ‘sticky panel’ trap component we designed is highly effective at catching these bugs.

“We are now at the stage of working with a commercial partner to maximise the potential of the lures to benefit the Australian horticultural industry.

“This is great news for growers, who will be able to access this technology from around mid-2015.”

Organic Crop Protectants was selected as the commercial partner to take the innovative lure technology to the market.

“OCP is a well-qualified company that has been commercially focused in the business of integrated pest and disease management for over 20 years,” Ms Campbell said.

“OCP’s plan will be to support further research and optimise the lures and traps into an integrated pest management system.

“The aim is to provide effective integrated pest management tools that give farmers better confidence to make the transition to more sustainable farming practices.”

The selection of OCP as the commercial partner for the new traps was undertaken through an open, competitive tender process by DAFF and Horticulture Australia.

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Philippines Invasive Species Aug  2014-5a

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Logo for IPM CRSP

Annual Report 2013
Posted on May 27, 2014 by Kelly Izlar
The IPM Innovation Labs’s FY 2013 (October 1, 2012–September 30, 2013) annual report is now available. Click below to download the document.

http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/publications/annual-reports/annual-report-2013/

For users with lower bandwidth and/or with interest in only certain specific topic areas, we will split individual chapters and major sections out of the Annual Report for you to view individually. Check back in the coming weeks for a list of individual chapters and sections for download. For more information contact: rmuni@vt.edu

Table of Contents

Management Entity Message
Highlights and Achievements in 2012–2013

Regional Programs
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Africa
West Africa
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Central Asia

Global Programs
Parthenium
International Plant Diagnostic Network (IPDN)
International Plant Virus Disease Network (IPVDN)
Impact Assessment
Gender Equity, Knowledge, and Capacity Building

Associate & Buy-In Awards
Indonesia
Nepal
Bangladesh

Training and Publications
Short- and Long-Term Training
Publications

Appendices: Collaborating Institutions and Acronyms

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Tips for a good strawberry crop
By Christine Schlueter
news@agrinews.com

Date Modified: 06/24/2014 2:28 PM

Questions are coming in about problems with strawberries. What can be done to have a good strawberry crop?

Good cultural practices — including site selection, cultivar selection, proper planting, irrigation, renovation and frequent harvest — all contribute to a satisfying harvest each year. These practices seek to produce the healthiest plants by avoiding situations that favor the development of diseases or contribute to insect infestations.

Irrigation systems that avoid getting the leaf surfaces wet are preferred, such as drip systems or a soaker hose. If a sprinkler system is used, water plants in the mornings on a sunny day to allow leaf surfaces to dry quickly.

If possible, strawberries should be rotated to different areas of the garden every three to four years. Land that has been in strawberries for four years or more can build up a population of root-rotting pathogens. Straw mulch reduces winter injury, and plants that have less winter injury have reduced disease. Straw mulch is equally important in spring and summer because it reduces fruit and flower diseases by covering the soil and reducing spore movement carried by raindrop splash. When removing straw in spring, up to 1 inch of straw should be left between rows to keep fruit off the soil and reduce weeds.

Renovation helps control diseases and insect pests by disrupting their life cycles. First, the plants are mowed and clippings removed. It helps to control diseases by removing older leaves that are infected by leaf spot or fruit rot pathogens. This helps to control insects by removing their food source and potential breeding sites.

If plants are grown in rows, renovation is a good time to thin widening rows back to their original width. It will improve airflow through the patch and reduce the time that leaf surfaces are wet, which can reduce disease severity.

Regardless of the size and shape of your strawberry patch, it’s best to mow or cut the foliage back before Aug. 1. A new canopy will develop by mid-August. To have a good crop the following year requires healthy, thriving plants from post-renovation to dormancy in the fall. Pay attention to the health of your plants in this time period.

There are many different insect pests of strawberries. Some of these pests will be present every year, and some you will never see, depending on the history of your garden and surrounding landscape. The most common insect pests in Minnesota are tarnished plant bugs, strawberry bud weevils, slugs, sap beetles and flower thrips.

Today’s approach combines many management methods into an integrated whole called Integrated Pest Management. IPM practices have enabled growers to place an emphasis on non-chemical methods while using pesticides secondarily or as a supplement while still harvesting quality fruit. The philosophy of IPM is to seek a balance maximizing yield while reducing human and environmental risk.

In IPM, pesticide applications are used only when cultural controls aren’t effective or as a supplement to cultural controls. Before using a pesticide, be certain you have correctly identified the pest and the product is effective against that organism. Don’t use products that are advertised as multi-use or 3-in-1 to manage a single pest problem because this would result in unnecessary application.

If a pesticide is necessary, choose one that is effective with the least ecological effect and environmental risk. More information about pesticide application and safety can be found at pesticide stewardship.org and at the National Pesticide Information Center. Information on the correct way to apply specific pesticides can be found on the product label. If pesticides are necessary, always use them exactly as directed by the product label.

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http://www.scidev.net/global/farming/news/cheap-chemicals-entice-caterpillar-eating-wasps-to-crops.html

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Flickr/CIMMYT

Speed read

  • Plant growth promoters are already used to boost crop yields
  • Applying them early could also attract caterpillar-eating wasps
  • The researchers say seeds could be soaked in the chemicals before planting

[CAIRO] It may be a win-win situation: treating seeds with commercially available growth promoters before planting could have the added benefit of attracting parasitic wasps that feed on caterpillar pests, suggests a study.

The protective effect of these cheap, commercially available chemicals, known as ‘plant strengtheners’, can help protect young crops when they are particularly vulnerable to caterpillars, according to research published last month (19 February) in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

“In the new study we show that the effect is long-lasting: even a week after treatment, we can see the effect,” says study co-author Ted Turlings, an ecologist at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

It is estimated that pathogens and pests account for 25 to 40 per cent of total crop loss. When under attack, plants naturally emit oils that attract the natural predators of the pests. It is possible to up-regulate this process — so more oil is emitted— using genetic modification.

But genetic modification up-regulates only the production of specific chemicals, and research indicates that it is a mixture of various chemicals that is most effective at attracting predators.

Since the mid-2000s scientists have known that spraying with plant strengtheners — a generic term for compounds that boost the vigour, resilience and performance of crops — also elicits the release of a range of extra predator-attracting chemicals. Though the exact biology involved is not well understood and the technique had not performed well in field trials.

Turlings team thought that this poor performance during previous large trials might be partly because the strengtheners were applied too late and partly because heavily pest-infested fields were used for the trials. If this was the case, then the strengtheners could still be useful if applied earlier — by soaking seeds in them, for example.

The scientists tried this idea out on a small scale in their study; soaking maize seeds in two kinds of strengtheners for 12 hours, planting them, and — after a few days growth — counting how many wasps they attracted as compared with control seeds soaked in water. They found that plants treated with both kinds of strengthener, compounds known as BTH and laminarin, attracted more wasps than the controls. They say larger scale trials should now go ahead.

The researchers still do not know exactly how the growth promoters increase the attraction of the parasitic wasps. But they say that treating plants with them may be the most environmentally friendly and effective option available to simultaneously increase crop yields and attract pest predators. It is also cheaper and less controversial than genetic modification of seeds.

“I could imagine that cheap versions of the plant strengtheners could be used by subsistence farmers to boost the performance of their crops,” says Turlings.

Entomologist Mohamed Ragaei of the Egyptian National Research Centre in Cairo tells SciDev.Net that the approach looks “really promising”.

“This is an excellent pest control strategy,” he says. “Especially as the statistics show perfectly the effectiveness of a naturally treated plant to attract parasitoids and enhance the [oil] emissions.”

Link to abstract in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

References

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0283 (2013)

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