An emerging bacterial disease with symptoms resembling those of halo blight is threatening mung bean production in China. This study was conducted to investigate the disease’s geographic distribution in China using consecutive multiyear field surveys and to confirm the causative agents’ identity. The surveys were conducted in 15 provinces covering seven geographic regions from 2009 to 2014. The survey results revealed that the emerging mung bean disease has rapidly spread and is prevalent in three of the main Chinese geographic regions, which contain more than 90% of the mung-bean-growing areas in China. To confirm the causal agent, diseased mung bean leaves were collected from the surveyed fields and used to isolate the pathogen. A bacterium was consistently isolated from all of the collected leaves. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, the physiological and biochemical properties, pathogenicity tests, and fatty acid composition, in combination with specific polymerase chain reactions and 16S-23S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses, the bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola causing halo blight on mung bean in China. The results indicate that P. syringae pv. phaseolicola is likely of epidemiological significance on mung bean in China.