Archive for the ‘IPM’ Category




Gill’s mealybug in pistachio– does the spray pay?

The adult female Gill’s mealybug, Ferrisia gilli, has a pink body and is covered in white wax. Photo by David Haviland.


To spray or not – that’s a question that often plagues pistachio growers faced with pests including Gill’s mealybug, which may or may not wreak economic havoc on their crop.

And that’s where David Haviland, University of California integrated pest management advisor for Kern County, comes in.

Haviland has published a paper with the Journal of Economic Entomology which presents a formula for determining the economic injury level that might or might not be tolerated by a grower.

The paper is based on several factors, including the treatment cost, the expected price per pound for the crop, and the anticipated yield.

It’s a matter of “does the spray pay?” Haviland said.

It could be that if an infestation is just beginning and a grower is trying to prevent spread, it might be best to be more aggressive, he adds.

The economic injury level formula adds the cost per acre for control with the anticipated yield in pounds per acre and the anticipated price, and then divides it by 0.094.

The result will be the economic injury level per cluster in May. As the cost goes up and the price and yield drops, there may be a greater tolerance for the number of mealybugs per cluster.

Haviland says a higher payment per pound of around $4 means the threshold for treating the pest “is really low.”

The ideal treatment timing is around June 1, or 10 days or so earlier when temperatures are higher.

Haviland said adult females emerge in late April or May, “and that’s when you monitor the number of mealybugs per cluster.” They can be found when the old wood connects with new growth – basically where the bud was.

Among the pesticides effective on the pest are Centaur (Buprofezin), Movento (Spirotetramat), Assail (Acetamiprid), and Admire (Imidacloprid).

Haviland said Admire is not as effective as the others but it is inexpensive and has no application costs when used in drip systems. Admire, he says, might not be the best choice in a bad infestation, but if the level is creeping back it can be used for suppression.

Haviland said Centaur, Assail, and Movento are all “extremely good.” Another good product he shared is Closer, which has been re-named Sequoia, a Dow AgroSciences product where the registration was pulled. Dow is seeking product re-registration.

Movento is costly, Haviland said, but researchers have learned it can be used at lower rates, six ounces rather than nine ounces, shaving one-third off the cost.

The pest was introduced into Tulare County in the mid-to-late 1990s. It spread slowly initially, reaching 2,000 acres in 2004 in at least five counties and was also found in almonds and wine grapes.

By 2005, 3,000 acres were infested. There were 6,000 aces infested by 2007. And pesticide reports indicate treatment on 80,000 acres in California by 2013.

Gill’s mealybugs are roughly ½ to 1/5 inch in length and pinkish grey in color. The pest is often covered with white wax secreted from a pore.“They muck up the clusters,” Haviland said.

He explained that they “intercept carbohydrates intended for kernel development.”

Smaller kernels mean less weight and less splitting.

“The small kernel is never big enough to push them open,” Haviland said, “and the biggest problem is closed shell nuts.”

The pest can cause shell staining and an increase in adhering hulls with later harvests. But it has no association with aflatoxin.

Pistachio growers should be cautious not to confuse Gill’s mealybug with grape mealybug.

Grape mealybug is sometimes found on pistachios, but does not cause economic damage but requires treatment. Grape mealybug has four slender white tails. The female Gill’s mealybug has two broad white tails.

When poked, adult females of grape mealybug extrude a bright red liquid through structures called ostioles towards both the rear and front of the top of the body. Gill’s mealybug does not extrude such a liquid.

Mealybug feeding produces large amounts of honeydew that results in black sooty mold that can reduce photosynthesis.

The most common predators of mealybugs in pistachios are brown lacewing and lady beetle whose larva resembles a mealybug.

One way to peg problem areas is to check trees before dormancy in the fall and look for sooty mold and leaves and for mealybugs within clusters. Note those locations for further evaluation the following spring.

Read Full Post »

Exclusive to Western Farm Press

What is in this article?:

  • There has never been a better time to implement integrated pest management for spider mites in almonds, says entomologist David Haviland of the University of California.
  • UC researchers have developed presence-absence monitoring thresholds to help almond growers understand exactly when they need to pull the trigger on treatment.

Feeding damage by spider mites to almond leaves. Photo by David Haviland.


There has never been a better time to implement integrated pest management (IPM)) for spider mites in almonds, according to entomology farm advisor David Haviland, University of California Cooperative Extension, Kern County.

A bevy of new reduced-risk, selective miticides have come on the market in recent years, and UC researchers have developed presence-absence monitoring thresholds to help almond growers understand exactly when they need to pull the trigger on treatment.

Haviland told a packed house at The Almond Conference last December that these new products have different modes of action, are easy on beneficial insects, and all are effective in the control of spider mites.

Despite this fact, pesticide use reports in recent years show a distinct trend toward preventive, prophylactic mite treatments in almonds. Perhaps growers are piggybacking onto early-season applications for other pests, or perhaps they are trying to stay ahead of mites to prevent flare-ups later in the season.

But Haviland said growers who spray at the first sign of mites might, in fact, be setting themselves up for problems later.

Food source

It is important for some mites to be present in the orchard early season to provide a food source for beneficials including six-spotted thrips, which, if allowed to thrive in the orchard, are an excellent natural biological control for spider mites. Allowing biocontrol organisms to get established, in fact, can reduce the risk of spider mite explosions later in the season.

Products containing abamectin, while inexpensive and effective on mites, are also known to kill six-spotted thrips and should be used cautiously if this predator is present in the orchard. In addition, pyrethroids and other broad-spectrum insecticides should be avoided until hull split unless they are absolutely necessary for leaffooted bug or other sporadic pests when no alternatives exist.

Read Full Post »



Orlando Florida, USA/ September 25-30, 2016

Pest Integrated Management and Sustainable Agriculture Section
Session title: Integrated Pest Management Components and Packages for Tropical Crops
Organizers: Rangaswamy Muniappan and E. A. Heinrichs
Session date: Monday, September 26, 2016
Session Time: 1:30PM – 5:00 PM

Session schedule:
1:30 – 1:45: The role of IPM in USAID’s feed the Future Initiative – J. Bowman

1:45—2:00: Integrated Pest management of chickpea Leaf miner, Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) . L. Ali, M. El Bouhssini and A. Sabraoui

2:00—2:15 Integrated Pest Management Strategy of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in the Near East and North African Region. S. AlDobai and J. R. Faleiro

2:15 – 2:30: Towards development of a parasitoid cottage industry in the Sahel for biological control of the millet head miner . N. M. BA, L. Baoua, A. Kabore, L. Amadou, L. Karimoune, H. Salha, L. C. Dabire, R. R. Muniappan and G. Norton

2:30—2:45 Management of Eriophyes dimocarpi on Longan in Vietnam using safe and biological approaches . T. T. M. Hanh, N. T. K. Thoa, and N. V. Hoa

2:45—3:00 An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy to manage bean pod borer (Maruca vitrata) on yard-long bean in Southeast Asia . S. Yule, R. Srinivasan, Vu Hai, and K. Soukhavong

3:00—3:15 Break

3:15—3:30 Biological control: a non-obvious option for managing insect pests in cowpea. R. Srinivasan, E. Dannon, B. Datinon, J. Toffa, D. Arodokoun, B. R. Pittendrigh, and M. Tamo

3:30—3:45 IPM as a strategic approach for management of virus diseases in vegetable crops in the tropics . N. Rayapati

3:45—4:00 Pest management in rain fed crops in the semi-arid tropics: Prospects and problems . S. Vashisth, J. Jagdish, and H. C. Sharma

4:00—4:15 Reducing insect pest vulnerabilities in rice value chain using ecologically-based IPM strategy.  B. Hadi, J. L. Catindig, S. Villareal, and C. P. F. Garcia

4:15 – 4:30 The Integrated Pest Management Program for Cotton in Egypt . A. H. El-Heneidy

4:30 – 4:45: Development and dissemination of vegetable integrated pest management (IPM) practices and packages in Nepal . S. Paudel, R. R. Muniappan, and E. G. Rajotte

4:45 – 5:00 Discussion


Late Breaking Symposium Section
Session title: Global Spread and Management of the South American Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta
Organizers: E. A. Heinrichs and Amer Fayad
Session date: Tuesday, September 27, 2016
Session Time: 9:15 AM – 12:00 PM

Goals:To present information on the expanding geographical distribution of T. absoluta, modeling its potential to spread globally, and available management options and to recruit additional members to the “International Tuta absoluta Working Group.”

Session schedule:
09:15 – 09:30: Tuta absoluta programs in IPM Innovation Lab – E. A. Heinrichs and R. Muniappan

09:30 – 09:45: Biology and and worldwide spread of T. absoluta – Antonio Biondia, Nicolas Desneux

09.45 – 10.00: Monitoring spread of T. absoluta using a multi-layered network based modeling framework – Abhijin Adiga

10:00 – 10:15: The role of human mobility and infrastructures in pest and disease modeling
– Madhav Marathe

10.15 – 10.30: Status of current and proposed regulatory responses by USDA/APHIS to the threat of tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) invasion into the United States – Joseph Vorgetts, Julieta Brambila, Devaiah A. Muruvanda, Amy L. Roda

10:30 – 10.45: Tuta absoluta in Afghanistan and Central Asia– Harry Bottenberg

10.45 – 11.00: Occurrence of South American tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in India – R. Asokan, V. Sridhar, Y. G. Prasad, S. Venugopalan

11:00 – 11.15: Tuta absoluta challenge and management in the Near East and North Africa Region – Shoki Al-Dhobi, Homam Bekheet Homam

11:15 – 11.30: Invasion of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta in West Africa: spatial dynamics, ecological niche and potential for biological control –Serigne Sylla, Karamoko Diarra, Thierry Brevault

11:30 – 11:45: Management of T. absoluta – Shakir Al-Zaidi

11:45 – 12:00: Discussion and recommendations



Read Full Post »

Copied from: PestNet

The “big rust’s” impact on coffee disease management Coffee rust has made significant headlines in recent years for its devastating effect on coffee crops. According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), losses in Latin America and the Caribbean alone have totaled well over $1 billion, causing hardship to coffee plantations, their labourers, coffee retailers, and the consumers who pay more for their morning coffee.

But this fungal disease, also known as “the big rust,” has a much longer and more encompassing history that goes all the way back to its discovery in 1869. This history is reviewed in detail through a new Phytopathology article entitled, “The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research,” written by Stuart McCook, historian at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, and John Vandermeer, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Michigan, USA.

In this essay, the authors discuss the big rust in a broader historical context, chronicling coffee rust epidemics, the social and ecological conditions that produced them, and the evolving scientific responses to this threat. The article highlights the many innovations used to combat coffee disease outbreaks, such as the efforts to develop disease-resistant plants, chemical and agroecological control, and even a network of international coffee research institutes. It also incorporates the broader social and economic histories of coffee production into particular stories of rust epidemics and rust research. The article also points out examples of the current research and disease mitigation challenges in developing nations versus affluent parts of the world.

By taking this broad perspective, the authors suggest we are entering a new phase in the global history of the coffee rust.

“Up until the mid-1980s, the story of the coffee rust was largely the story of invasions, as the disease spread into regions where it was not previously present,” McCook said. “By the mid-1980s, however, the disease had reached almost every coffee-producing region in the world.”

“For a brief while, in the 1980s and 1990s, it looked as if coffee farmers-with the help of scientists-had adapted to the disease, making it ‘just another disease’ on the farm. But we suggest that this fragile equilibrium has begun to break down, both because of broader ecological changes that we are only beginning to understand, and also because of increasing volatility in the global coffee economy,” he said.

Read this paper in the September 2015 issue of Phytopathology.

(Phytopathology News, November 2015)




Read Full Post »

Africa: Fabulous fungus finds a following.

Read Full Post »


Posted: Jun 09, 2015 6:07 AM CST Updated: Jun 09, 2015 6:11 AM CST

BLACKSBURG (Virginia Tech) – A Virginia Tech-led program working in Nepal has switched gears from development work to disaster relief after the recent earthquakes.The agricultural development program provided seed to farmers for fast-growing vegetable crops and distributed plastic sheeting to meet people’s need for shelter. The sheeting can later be used to set up greenhouses.”With the use of fast-growing vegetables such as dwarf beans, pumpkin, radishes, and mustard greens, farmers can quickly get produce that they can then eat or sell, making them less dependent on handouts,” said Muni Muniappan, director of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management program. “The work is being carried out by our partner organization, iDE-Nepal, and builds on work that we started.”

Materials distributed since the April 25 earthquake covered 457 households in the Lalitpur and Kavre districts in Nepal’s central region.

On May 12, a team from the Virginia Tech-led project had just completed distributing seed packets in the area when the second earthquake struck. “We had just distributed seeds and conducted a training that morning,” recounted Sulav Paudel, the local Integrated Pest Management coordinator. “I was traveling in a van, and our driver was having a hard time controlling the vehicle. We saw an old house on the side of the road crumble right in front of us. Fortunately no one from the area was hurt.”

The integrated pest management program, which dates to 1993, has been active in Nepal since 2005, helping farmers grow high-value horticultural crops without using synthetic pesticides. The program introduced such environmentally friendly practices as using drip irrigation, Trichoderma (a beneficial fungus), biofertilizers, biopesticides, staking, mulching, and pheromone and soap-based insect traps.

Nepalese women’s farming groups have also benefited, with members selling their vegetable crops and earning 50 to 250 percent more by using new techniques.

Plans for the coming months include helping nurseries in the area produce seedlings for crops that take more time to reach maturity but will produce for longer, such as tomato, chili peppers, cabbage, cauliflower, and cucumber.

“We hope that our contributions in the realm of agriculture can help the resilient Nepalese people quickly return to some semblance of normalcy,” Muniappan said.

The agricultural development program is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and managed by the Office of International Research, Education, and Development.

Dedicated to its motto, Ut Prosim (That I May Serve), Virginia Tech takes a hands-on, engaging approach to education, preparing scholars to be leaders in their fields and communities. As the commonwealth’s most comprehensive university and its leading research institution, Virginia Tech offers 240 undergraduate and graduate degree programs to more than 31,000 students and manages a research portfolio of $513 million. The university fulfills its land-grant mission of transforming knowledge to practice through technological leadership and by fueling economic growth and job creation locally, regionally, and across Virginia.

Read Full Post »

Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries

Field Guide


Cover of the Field Guide to Pests, Beneficials, Diseases and Disorders of Vegetables in northern Australia

This field guide provides easy and quick access to text and images to assist with the identification of pests and disease symptoms in the field. Correct identification of pests, beneficials, diseases and disorders is important in helping to minimise crop damage and when considering management options. The guide provides descriptions, life cycles and biology, monitoring and pest management.
This field guide is an invaluable resource for primary producers, researchers, extension staff and students. It is available in both English and Vietnamese printed versions or can be downloaded below.
How to get a copy of the Field Guide

1. Download a PDF Version of the Field Guide
English Print version PDF – 14.8MB | Online version PDF – 90.1 MB
Vietnamese PDF 6.7MB
2. Request a printed version
tel: 08 8999 2258 or email haidee.brown@nt.gov.au
About the Field Guide

This publication is the first comprehensive field guide to pests, beneficials, diseases and disorders of commercially grown vegetables in the Northern Territory. The information has been derived from more than 20 years research and extension experience with commercial vegetable crops by staff of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Horticulture, within the Plant Industries Group, Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries. The vegetable field guide is a useful resource for primary producers, researchers, extension staff and students.
The format of the book has been designed to provide easy and quick access to assist in the recognition of pests, diseases or symptoms in the field. Each opening includes text on the left page and photographs on the right page. The tabs along the right edge are labelled and colour-coded, making it easier to navigate.
Due to regular updates and changes in the recommendations of pesticides, specific products have not been listed. However, growers are encouraged to contact Department staff if they require assistance with pest or disease management.
Information regarding pesticide registrations is available from the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) website.
A comprehensive Agvet chemical database is available free online from Infopest which is owned and managed by Growcom.
Monitoring and Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Growers are encouraged to use this guide as a resource to assist in the identification of pests and their natural enemies as well as diseases and disorders when monitoring vegetable crops. Correct identification of pests and diseases is important when considering management options. Integrated pest management (IPM) is the management of pest populations using all relevant control practices in a complementary manner, so that the pest will be maintained below the economic injury level and adverse effects to the environment will be minimal. When diseases are incorporated, IPM is referred to as integrated pest and disease management (IPDM).
The majority of vegetables are grown over the ‘dry season’ (May to September) and many pests and diseases are suited to the dry and warm conditions with mean temperatures in the range of 15-36°C (for the Darwin area). The ‘build-up’ to the wet season starts in September and higher temperatures and humidity is generally experienced. Most of the rainfall occurs in the ‘wet season’ between October to April.
This guide provides descriptions, life cycles and biology along with colour photographs to help recognise and distinguish pests from beneficials (which includes natural enemies that attack pests as well as pollinators). Since beneficials help regulate the levels of pests, it is important to monitor pest numbers to assess the level of natural control by predators or parasites before considering other pest management options. Regular monitoring of the crop will assist in the detection of pests and diseases, as well as providing an indication of the change in populations or spread of symptoms.
Departmental contact information

Entomology (pests and beneficials)
Telephone: 08 8999 2258
Email: insectinfo@nt.gov.au
Plant Pathology (plant diseases and disorders)
Telephone: 08 8999 2265
Email: plant.pathology@nt.gov.au
Horticulture (growing advice)
Telephone: 08 8999 2222
Email: horticulture@nt.gov.au


Read Full Post »

Older Posts »


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 241 other followers