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From Pestnet

reliefweb
http://reliefweb.int/report/kenya/fall-armyworm-spreads-east-africa

Report

from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Published on 25 Apr 2017 — View Original

25/04/2017

As millions of east African farmers seek to recover from a devastating drought, they face a new threat – the fall armyworm. The pest has been recently detected in Kenya and is suspected to have entered the country from Uganda. It is also known to be present in Burundi, Ethiopia and Rwanda.

The fall armyworm was first reported in western Kenya by farmers in March 2017, and immediately confirmed by the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service and Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation. The initial counties infested were Busia, TransNzoia, Bungoma, Uasin Gishu and Nandi.

However, the pest has rapidly spread to key maize- and wheat-producing counties, including Kericho, Bomet and Narok in South Rift, as well as Nakuru and Baringo in Central Rift. Further, there are unconfirmed reports of presence of the pest in eastern and coastal areas. The major crop currently being ravaged by the pest is maize, which is at various stages of growth, ranging from germination to shoulder-high (nearing tasselling).

In Kenya, the Government has sought to respond quickly and effectively to prevent an outbreak from dampening prospects for the recently started main cereal-cropping season. With extension service providers and farmers not having much or any knowledge or skills on how to control and manage the fall armyworm, the Government has formed a platform to coordinate development of intervention strategies. However, as yet there are no funds available for implementation. Early this year, the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ethiopia received a report from Mizan Plant Health Clinic, which had intercepted the fall armyworm in five woredas (districs) of three zones – Bench-Maji, Kaffa and Sheka – located in southwestern Ethiopia, where early maize planting begins during January, February and March.

The Horn of Africa is already facing a regional humanitarian crisis, triggered by drought and leading to skyrocketing food insecurity, particularly among livestock-owning communities, with lives and livelihoods devastated across the region. Today, almost 18 million people in the Horn of Africa are severely food insecure as consecutive seasons of poor rainfall have led to crop failures, widespread pasture and water shortages, reduced opportunities for rural employment, increasing livestock deaths, rising food prices and rapidly diminishing access to food for poor households.

Drought has hit hardest in rural areas, where food security, nutrition and income generation is largely dependent on local agricultural and livestock production. In Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, South Sudan and Uganda, drought has scorched crops and rangelands, dried water sources and led to increasing rates of starvation, disease and death among livestock. Families are employing extreme coping strategies to survive, including skipping meals, selling productive assets and the migration or displacement of entire households.

The ongoing planting season represents one of the main opportunities to tackle hunger and protect lives and livelihoods in the region. However, with fall armyworm having a preference for maize and other cereals, an outbreak threatens to further undermine the food security of families that can ill afford another crisis. The pest is known to cause 100 percent crop losses.

There is urgent need therefore to support the county and national governments to halt further spread and damage. Failure to control the pest would result in serious food, economic and social insecurity in Kenya, and indeed in Eastern and Central Africa.

On 25 April 2017, FAO convened a technical meeting in Nairobi, Kenya to deliberate on the fall armyworm response with the Governments and partners in Southern Africa. The outcomes of this meeting were then deliberated at an Africa-wide meeting organized by FAO, the Alliance for a Green Revolution and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Nairobi on 27 and 28 April. The meeting reviewed the status of fall armyworm incidence and impact in Africa, discussed the available technological options for minimizing the damage caused by the pest and provide concrete recommendations on the strategy for effective management of fall armyworm in Africa. The meeting will also identify appropriate partnerships to develop and deploy short, medium and long-term solutions to the farming communities in Africa.

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| EurekAlert! Science News
https://oss.maxcdn.com/libs/respond.js/1.3.0/respond.min.js

Public Release: 4-May-2017

Stink bugs: Free guide for agricultural integrated pest management

Insights for midwestern corn, soybean growers on managing various stink bug species

Entomological Society of America

IMAGE
IMAGE: A new open-access guide in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management outlines the identifying features, lifecycles, behaviors, and management options for a variety of stink bug species that are increasingly… view more 

Credit: Photo credits: Cassandra Kurtz and Christopher Philips, modified by Daniela Pezzini

Annapolis, MD; April 28, 2017 — Farmers in the midwestern United States have been battling increasing infestations from a variety of stink bug species in recent years, and now they have a new free resource for understanding and managing the emerging pests.

Next week, the Entomological Society of America’s open-access Journal of Integrated Pest Management (JIPM) will publish “Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States,” a profile of several of the most common stink bug pests that offers methods for differentiating species, summaries of stink bug life cycles and behaviors, and guidance for monitoring and managing them.

Stink bugs have historically been more prevalent pests in the southern United States, but they are now making more frequent appearances in midwestern fields, according to Robert Koch, Ph.D., assistant professor and extension entomologist at the University of Minnesota and lead author of the JIPM article. “Because stink bugs are emerging as a new threat to Midwest soybean and corn production, we felt that there was need for a comprehensive review of these pests that was accessible to producers and agricultural professionals,” he says.

Koch and co-authors conducted an extensive review of existing research on management of stink bugs in developing the new profile aimed at midwestern growers. While “at least 24 species or subspecies of stink bugs could potentially be encountered in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States,” the most common pest species are outlined in the article, including:

  • Green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris)
  • Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)
  • Redshouldered stink bug (Thyanta custator acerra)
  • Brown stink bug (Euschistus servus)
  • Onespotted stink bug (Euschistus variolarius)

In soybean, stink bugs can feed on all above-ground parts of the plant but prefer pods and developing seeds, and the damage they cause can affect yield, seed quality, and germination rates. In corn, stink bugs can feed on corn at all growth stages, but seedling and early reproductive stages of corn are most susceptible.

Koch and colleagues specify scouting methods for measuring stink bug abundance in fields, along with economic thresholds at which management tactics should be deployed. Their research identifies which classes of insecticides may be best suited for individual species and identify additional resources for growers to investigate cultural and biological control measures, as well.

“Stink bugs tend to be generalist pests and can feed on and move between different crops and wild plant species throughout the year,” says Koch. The JIPM profile rounds up existing knowledge about stink bugs, much of it from research conducted in southern states, but “further research is needed on corn and soybean response to stink bug feeding in the Midwest,” he says.

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“Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States,” by Robert L. Koch, Daniela T. Pezzini, Andrew P. Michel, and Thomas E. Hunt, will be published online on May 4 in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management. Journalists may request advance copies of the article via the contact below.

CONTACT: Joe Rominiecki, jrominiecki@entsoc.org, 301-731-4535 x3009

ABOUT: ESA is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines. Founded in 1889, ESA today has over 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry, and government. Headquartered in Annapolis, Maryland, the Society stands ready as a non-partisan scientific and educational resource for all insect-related topics. For more information, visit http://www.entsoc.org.

Journal of Integrated Pest Management is an open access, peer-reviewed, extension journal covering the field of integrated pest management. The journal is multi-disciplinary in scope, publishing articles in all pest management disciplines, including entomology, nematology, plant pathology, weed science, and other subject areas. For more information, visit https://academic.oup.com/jipm, or visit https://academic.oup.com/insect-science to view the full portfolio of ESA journals and publications.

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The spread of pests and pathogens that damage plant life could cost global agriculture $540 billion a year, according to a report published on Thursday. The report, released by the Royal Botanic Gardens (RBG) at Kew in London, said that an increase in international trade and travel had left flora facing rising threats from invasive […]

via Pests and pathogens could cost agriculture billions — The Plantwise Blog

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Asian-Pacific WS meeting

Dear colleagues and friends,

On behalf of the organizing committee, it is my pleasure and great honor to invite you to attend the 26th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference (APWSS 2017) Kyoto, to be held on  (refer to http://www.c-linkage.co.jp/apwss2017/). The theme of the conference is “Weed Science for People, Agriculture, and Nature.”

Weed science is a comprehensive research area that covers ecology, biology and chemistry related to weed control and management. Weed science is nowadays an advanced science that is closely linked to human societies. We should use interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to address future weed science and management. I assure you that attending the 26th APWSS conference provides an excellent opportunity to meet experts in weed science and the respective fields and learn to apply your new-found knowledge when you return home.

The host city, Kyoto, is the ancient capital of Japan and is recognized worldwide as the country’s historical, cultural and spiritual heart. The city offers you numerous cultural and unique experiences with its countless shrines, temples, and architectural masterpieces including 17 UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sites. Mid-September is one of the best times to visit Kyoto. We suggest you to take a nice walk and to enjoy the streets and local sightseeing spots before and after attending the conference.

We look forward to welcoming you in Kyoto, September 2017!

Dr. Hiroshi Matsumoto

Chairperson, the 26th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference (APWSS2017)

President, Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society

Professor, University of Tsukuba

*************************************************

The deadline of call for papers is on 31 May 2017.

(refer to http://www.c-linkage.co.jp/apwss2017/papers.html)

Other important links are as follows:

Registration details   http://www.c-linkage.co.jp/apwss2017/registration.html

Program    http://www.c-linkage.co.jp/apwss2017/programme.html

Secretariat e-mail: apwss2017@c-linkage.co.jp

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SW FarmPress
California cotton
Researchers have found that crossing Bt cotton with non-Bt cotton can reverse issues of resistance by the pink bollworm to the transgenic efforts to control them.

Researchers able to reverse resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton

Collaborative effort by researchers in China and the University of Arizona find unique method to reverse resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton. Implications exist for transgenic corn and soybeans as well.

Farm Press Staff | May 09, 2017

Researchers with the University of Arizona and China discovered a surprising strategy to reverse pink bollworm resistance to genetically engineered cotton.

Cotton growers have been able to use genetically engineered cotton to fight the pink bollworm. This has happened as scientists have been able to produce pest-killing proteins from the widespread soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt. Without adequate countermeasures, scientists have discovered that pests can quickly evolve resistance.

According Bruce Tabashnik, one of the authors of the study and a regents’ professor with the University of Arizona, these Bt proteins are considered environmentally friendly because they are not toxic to people and wildlife. They have been used in sprays by organic growers for more than 50 years, and in engineered Bt crops planted by millions of farmers worldwide on more than 1 billion acres since 1996.

Scientists from the U.S. and China discovered that by hybridizing genetically-engineered cotton with conventional cotton, it reduced the resistance of the pink bollworm. Details of the 11-year study that tested more than 66,000 pink bollworm caterpillars from China’s Yangtze River Valley are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Tabashnik says this is the first-ever case where scientists have seen substantial reversal to resistance developed by a pest.

The primary strategy for delaying resistance is providing refuges of the pests’ host plants that do not make Bt proteins, according to Tabashnik. This allows survival of insects that are susceptible to Bt proteins and reduces the chances that two resistant insects will mate and produce resistant offspring.

Before 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required refuges in separate fields or large blocks within fields. Planting non-Bt cotton refuges is credited with preventing evolution of resistance to Bt cotton by pink bollworm in Arizona for more than a decade.

By contrast, despite a similar requirement for planting refuges in India, farmers there did not comply and the pink bollworm rapidly evolved resistance.

The ingenious strategy used in China entails interbreeding Bt cotton with non-Bt cotton, then crossing the resulting first-generation hybrid offspring and planting the second-generation hybrid seeds. This generates a random mixture within fields of 75 percent Bt cotton plants side-by-side with 25 percent non-Bt cotton plants, according to the University of Arizona.

“Because cotton can self-pollinate, the first-generation hybrids must be created by tedious and costly hand pollination of each flower,” said Tabashnik, “However, hybrids of the second generation and all subsequent generations can be obtained readily via self-pollination. So, the hybrid mix and its benefits can be maintained in perpetuity.”

Tabashnik calls this strategy revolutionary because it was not designed to fight resistance and arose without mandates by government agencies. Rather, it emerged from the farming community of the Yangtze River Valley. While most previous attention has focused on the drawbacks of interbreeding between genetically engineered and conventional plants, the authors point out that the new results demonstrate gains from such hybridization.

“For the growers in China, this practice provides short-term benefits,” Tabashnik added. “It’s not a short-term sacrifice imposed on them for potential long-term gains. The hybrid plants tend to have higher yield than the parent plants, and the second-generation hybrids cost less, so it’s a market-driven choice for immediate advantages, and it promotes sustainability. Our results show 96 percent pest suppression and 69 percent fewer insecticide sprays.”

There are implications in transgenic corn and soybeans as well.

“This study gives a new option for managing resistance that is very convenient for small-scale farmers and could be broadly helpful in developing countries like China and India,” explained coauthor Kongming Wu, who led the work conducted in China and is a professor in the Institute of Plant Protection in Beijing.

“A great thing about this hybrid seed mix strategy is that we don’t have to worry about growers’ compliance or regulatory issues,” Tabashnik said. “We know it works for millions of farmers in the Yangtze River Valley. Whether it works elsewhere remains to be determined.”

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How Kenya is soldiering on in war against armyworms – Daily Nation

The good, bad and ugly in fight against armyworms

Friday May 12 2017

Patrick Wanjala, a maize farmer in Namanjalala, Trans Nzoia County displays a maize plant attacked by armyworm in his farm.

Patrick Wanjala, a maize farmer in Namanjalala, Trans Nzoia County displays a maize plant attacked by armyworm in his farm. The pest has potential of causing famine since the larva not only feeds on staple food crops but also grass, pasture and any green vegetation. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NATION MEDIA GROUP 

By STANLEY KIMUGE
More by this Author

From far, Malaki village, about some 6km from Kitale town in Kwanza in Trans Nzoia County, is lush green, with farms teeming with the maize crop. Nothing looks unusual at various fields but as one moves closer to the maize farms, a different story unravels.

The maize crop has been ravaged extensively by the fall armyworms, with the area being the worst affected by the pests.

Patrick Wanjala, a maize and beans farmer, bends for the umpteenth time looking at his crop. His face is forlorn showing the anguish and frustration that the pest has caused him.

“I have never seen anything like this before in my life as a farmer. I am not sure if I will harvest any maize this season.”

Under normal circumstances, he would have harvested between 60 and 70 90kg bags from his one-and-half-acres.

“It started with small holes on the plants’ leaves and I thought it was just the stem borer as that is the common pest here. I sprayed but nothing changed then reports of the armyworms having invaded the region filtered in,” recounts Wanjala.

In a bid to tame the notorious pest, Wanjala said he applied ash and even red soil as desperation set in.

“I tried that hoping that it would work but it was all in vain,” says Wanjala, whose crop was attacked some two months ago.

Then hope came when the government announced that it was coming up with measures to tackle the pest that is a threat to food security since it is destroying maize.

Armyworm has potential of causing famine since the larva not only feeds on staple food crops (maize, wheat, millets and sorghum) but also grass, pasture and any green vegetation mainly on the leaf lamina, leaving only the mid-rib

A team was set up at the county and national level to co-ordinate the fight against the worms.

But to date, Wanjala says he has not received any chemicals from either the county or national government as promised.

“I have been to the county offices several times hoping to get chemicals in vain. Two days ago I went there. More than 2,000 of us had turned up and the chemicals were not enough despite the little amounts they were giving,” says Wanjala, who is yet to spray any chemicals on his maize crop.

ONGOING RAINS

So far, according to the county government, some 15,000 acres of maize have been affected in the region, but the inspection of the fields is ongoing to ascertain exact figure.

The ravenous pest has fed on the “heart” of most of plants leading to stunted growth.

Trans Nzoia County, which is the country’s food basket has borne the brunt of the armyworm attack, with an estimated thousands acres of maize having been ravaged.

County’s chief agriculture officer Mary Nzomo says the county is distributing chemicals to farmers to contain the situation, though they are not enough.

“We have been able to spray about 10,000 acres out of the over 15,000 affected by the pest,” says Nzomo, noting an adult worm lays up to 2,000 eggs and it’s important to kill them before they become adults to avoid spreading. Besides spraying, she says the county has taken other measures to curb spread, which include sensitisation of farmers.

Maize crop attacked by the pest in a farm.

Maize crop attacked by the pest in a farm. Normally, the pests feed in the evenings and early morning. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NATION MEDIA GROUP

“We are holding public barazas where we also distribute educational flyers and we do on-farm demonstrations. We are currently holding talks on FM radios as well as print and broadcast media to spread the message,” she says.

She notes despite promise by the national government that they will get chemicals since it recommended the spraying be done three times, no pesticides have been distributed to them and in the nearby Uasin Gishu County.

“Those farmers that have sprayed have noticed the chemicals are working. What we are telling farmers is that if you spot the pest in your area, you need to spray all maize plants including those that have not been attacked to avoid re-infestation,” says Nzomo.

Other factors are also hampering the struggle to eradicate the pest including the rains.

“Sunny and humid conditions help control multiplication of the pest but with the ongoing rains, it becomes a challenge to spray. Normally, the pests feed in the evenings and early morning and this is the time we are asking farmers to spray, but with the heavy rains, when they spray the chemicals are washed away.”

The farmers have been advised to spray at least three times in two weeks after germination, when the crops are knee-high and during the formation of the tarsals (about the flowering stage) to control the pest.

SALVAGE CROPS

Last month, Trans Nzoia set aside Sh45 million while Uasin Gishu Sh2 million to fight the pest.

“This was to cover about 20 per cent of farmers, mainly small-scale. On average, the cost of spraying is about Sh2,000 per acre but we are assisting to do one spraying for farmers,” says Nzomo.

Joseph Cheboi, Uasin Gishu County Director of Agriculture, says that four out of six sub counties have reported armyworm infestation, with Soy and Moiben that border Trans Nzoia County being worst hit.

Bernard Kimuiguei, a farmer in Kipsombe in Soy, says that his 20 out of 40 acres under maize has been affected.

“I was given some chemicals by the county officials but they were too little. I have to dig deeper into my pockets and it is really costly,” he says.

Dr Victoria Tarus, county chief officer in-charge of agriculture, says approximately 600 acres have been infested but they are distributing chemicals to farmers.

Robert Aluda, a farmer in Namanjalala Trans Nzoia, says besides the failure to get pesticides, lack of information on how to control the pest is also the biggest setback.

Trans Nzoia County Deputy Governor Stanley Tarus, Agriculture Chief Officer in the county Mary Nzomo and farmers during the launch of Fall Armyworm Management Campaign

Trans Nzoia County Deputy Governor Stanley Tarus, Agriculture Chief Officer in the county Mary Nzomo and farmers during the launch of Fall Armyworm Management Campaign in the county on May 09, 2017. Farmers whose maize crop had been infested were given pesticides to fight the invasion. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NATION MEDIA GROUP

“If we knew from the beginning what the pest was and how to eradicate it, we would have salvaged our crops. We just heard on the radio that a pest had crossed the Kenya-Uganda border but we thought it won’t be that destructive so we did not act fast,” says Aluda, who took a bank loan of Sh50,000 and sank into the maize farm.

But it is not all gloom. Charles Sawe from Moiben says he bought himself chemicals recommended by agricultural extension officers and he has been able to clear the worms on his expansive farm.

He says that only few farmers have received the government chemicals.

UNDER CONTROL

The government recommended the following chemicals; Duduthrin, Twigapyrifos, Belt, Match, Ranger, Loyalty, Integra, Orthene, Jackpot, Imaxi. They are also using cocktails and are working well.

Other chemicals include Chlorpyrfos, Alpha Cypermerthrin , Indoxarb, Di Ubenzuron, Clorantraniliprole and Spinetoram.

At the Coast, where there was African armyworm attack, farmers have reported success in eradication of the pest. In Taita Taveta County, the armyworms invaded Njukini and Challa within the agriculturally rich Kasigau-Maktau belt and some parts of Mwatate.

Agriculture chief officer Evans Mbinga said the worms invaded 25 hectares under maize crop as well as some ranches. “At least 60 farmers were affected by the armyworms invasion, which followed rains after a prolonged drought. Following the rains, new grass sprang up and it created a conducive environment for the armyworms to multiply,” he explains.

The agriculture official says the county has brought the armyworm invasion under control after spraying pesticides on affected farms. “County field officers teamed up with farmers in spraying the pesticide known as Cypermetherin which wiped off the armyworms.”

Joseph Ivuso, a farmer in Taita, whose 2.5 acres of maize were invaded says he eradicated the pest with the help of county agricultural officers.

In Kwale County, the director of agriculture David Wanjala says the armyworms invaded 25 acres of maize in Lunga Lunga.

However, he noted that the pests did not cause a big damage. “When the farmers planted maize, the moths were at pupae stage in the soil, so when the rains started pounding the region they easily drowned.”

But despite the rains wiping away the pests, Wanjala says the county is expected to receive 1,000 litres of pesticide from the national government next week, which would be used in case the worms reappear.

Additional reporting by Mathias Ringa

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IPM approach best for soybean aphids | Ohio Ag Net | Ohio’s Country Journal

About 89.5 million acres of soybeans will be planted across the United States in 2017 — a record high, according to the USDA. Research published in the April 2017 issue of Pest Management Science indicates that many of these soybean growers will invest in neonicotinoid insecticide seed treatments. The two-year, multi-state study revealed that, even during periods of infestation by the soybean aphid, the neonicotinoid treatment produced the same yields as using no insecticide at all.

The study was a joint effort of Purdue University, Iowa State University, Kansas State University, North Dakota State University, the University of Minnesota, South Dakota State University, and the University of Wisconsin. The research was grower-funded, using soybean checkoff funds provided by the North Central Soybean Research Program (NCSRP).

The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, which is applied as a coating to soybean seeds, provides a maximum of two weeks of protection against insect feeding. Aphids typically don’t reach damaging numbers until much later in the season, said Christian Krupke, an entomology professor and extension specialist at Purdue University and one of the researchers and authors of the study. As a result, when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels, from late July to August, the insecticide levels in tissues of neonicotinoid-treated soybean foliage were similar to plants grown from seeds without the insecticide.

Bruce Potter, Insect Pest Management (IPM) specialist for the University of Minnesota Extension, said one of the most important aspects of the study was providing soybean growers information about how to invest their funds.

Potter said soybean growers in northern regions, including Minnesota, don’t have chronic and consistent economic infestations of early season insect pests.

“Farmers wouldn’t get an advantage from putting insecticide on soybean seeds,” he said. The exception to this conclusion would be fields at a higher risk for infrequent pests like seed corn maggot and white grub or for seed production fields where bean leaf beetle and bean pod mottle virus occur. The research study concluded soybean farmers in all the regions in the study should employ the IPM approach, combining scouting and foliage-applied insecticide where necessary.

“In terms of long-term sustainability and the bottom line for your yearly balance sheet, the IPM approach is the most effective approach for pest management in the growing season,” Krupke said.

A study examining neonicotinoid seed treatments of corn had a similar result. This study, published in the journal PLOS ONE in March 2017, was conducted by Krupke’s doctoral student, Adam Alford. It revealed that concentrations of the insecticide most commonly applied to corn seeds, clothianidin, declined rapidly and approached zero in plant tissues within 20 days after planting. Less than 5% of what was applied to the seed was recovered from corn plants in the field.

Currently, at least one of two neonicotinoids, clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to more than 80% of the corn and over half of the soybeans grown in North America.

Previous studies, although smaller in size, had shown similar results with neonicotinoid seed treatments, which were introduced in the 1990s, said Kelley J. Tilmon, state extension specialist for the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center and an associate professor of entomology at Ohio State University. She performed the research in South Dakota when she was on the faculty of South Dakota State University.

The recent study was launched to provide more definitive scientific answers across a large geographic area, Tilmon said.

Janet J. Knodel, extension entomologist and associate professor at North Dakota State University, said the results were similar in North Dakota.

“As part of our research, we saw the soybean aphids coming into the field in late July and early August in North Dakota,” she said. “By then, the residual of the insecticide seed treatment is gone.”

Farmers can consult with their local university Extension services for additional information on specific pest management strategies in their state. They also can obtain information by downloading the Purdue Extension publication “The Effectiveness of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments in Soybean” at http://bit.ly/2pZ8IBi.

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