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Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus could have entered Queensland through imported seeds – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

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Ccucumber green mottle virus could have entered Queensland through imported seeds

 

Posted 3 May 2017, 3:18pmWed 3 May 2017, 3:18pm

Biosecurity authorities are trying to figure out how a fruit and vegetable rotting disease broke out in Queensland, but have initial suspicions it was through imported seed.

Farmers from the Bundaberg region are angry cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) has recently been discovered on five local properties, owned by two growers.

CGMMV causes internal rot and discolouration in some cucurbit family fruit and vegetables, and its discovery comes months after an outbreak of white spot disease decimated the aquaculture industry in south-east Queensland.

Biosecurity Queensland spokesman Mike Ashton said the virus was not harmful to humans, but could ravage parts of the agriculture industry if a widespread outbreak occurs.

He said there was a possibility the virus was brought onto the infected farms by imported seeds.

That is considering the businesses operate independently and do not share personnel and equipment.

“That kind of increases the risk that perhaps it was seed that was the source of the introduction,” he said.

“It’s highly unlikely that we’ll ever be able to pinpoint exactly how it got introduced.”

“We’re certainly doing tracing investigations to try and identify the source.”

Farmers like Gino Marcon are angry there has been an outbreak of another virus, and are switching to less risky crops.

Mr Marcon normally grows a wide range of vegetables on his farm, but this year, he is only growing tomatoes to avoid CGMMV.

“We’ve actually stopped growing cucumbers, we’ve sort of got a wait-and-see attitude at the moment,” Mr Marcon said.

“We’re a bit worried that the disease may affect our zucchini production, so we’ve switched over to 100 per cent tomato production in our greenhouses.”

He blamed biosecurity authorities for the outbreak.

“We’ve lost confidence in the system and that’s the biosecurity system,” Mr Marcon said.

“We think it’s not broken, it’s shredded to bits. It’s simply not working.

“I think the whole system needs to be overhauled, we’re not getting value for money for the money being allocated to biosecurity.

“[Politicians] need to look long and hard at the whole system and change it.”

Mr Ashton rejects the allegation that the system has failed.

“We have managed to restrict the disease to a very small number of properties in Queensland,” he said.

“Unlike the Northern Territory and increasingly so in Western Australia where the disease has become quite established.”

There have been previous outbreaks of CGMMV in the Territory and WA, and an isolated case at Charters Towers in North Queensland in 2015.

Biosecurity Queensland hope the Charters Towers farm will be declared clear of the virus later this year.

The Federal Agriculture Department introduced mandatory imported seed testing to try and combat CGMMV in 2014.

In a statement, the department said it uses a sample size more than four times the size (9,400 seeds) than that used internationally (2,000).

It said that gave a high level of confidence in the results.

Topics: pest-management, rural, quarantine, crop-harvesting, agricultural-policy, vegetables, activism-and-lobbying, agricultural-crops, fruit, fruits, bundaberg-4670, qld

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Huanglongbing is causing concern in California – California Agriculture News | California Agriculture


https://californiaagtoday.com/wp-content/themes/calagtodaynew/js/html5.js?ver=3.7.3

April 27, 2017

Increase of Huanglongbing in California Causes Concern

 By Brian German, Associate Broadcaster

Southern California has seen a concerning increase in the amount of trees that are infected with Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease. California Ag Today discussed the news with Beth Grafton-Cardwell, an IPM Specialist and Research Entomologist for the UC Riverside Entomology Department stationed in the San Joaquin Valley.  She agreed that there is an increased concern surrounding HLB.

“It kind of exploded this fall, and it’s kind of continuing. And, that’s not unexpected. The Department of Food and Ag removes only the trees that are polymerase chain reaction – positive. And sometimes, it takes one to two years for a tree for you to be able to detect the bacteria using that method,” Grafton-Cardwell said.

Beth Grafton-Cardwell

There is no cure currently available for HLB, so once a tree is infected, it will eventually die.  Researchers continue working to find a possible cure for HLB, or at the very least, a more effective means of diagnosing infected trees. “Most of the techniques that are going to help us cure or prevent the disease from being transmitted are five to ten years away. Yet, I think we’re going to see a rapid expansion of the disease in Southern California in this coming year,” Grafton-Cardwell said.

Early detection is one of the most important things.  Grafton-Cardwell noted that many farmers are “helping to get the research accomplished and, for example, helping to get early detection techniques tested, and things like that so that we can try and stay on top of the disease.”

In California, production trees are not required to be screened, but many nurseries are now shifting towards putting all of their trees under screening in an effort to be more proactive in guarding against the spread of HLB.

Biological controls like Tamarixia are used as a means to reduce the number Asian citrus psyllids, which cause HLB, but that type of control method is not designed to completely eradicate insects.

“They’re starting to release the Tamarixia Wasps in Bakersfield. So we’re getting them up into the San Joaquin Valley so they can help out in those urban areas,” Grafton-Cardwell said.

Dogs are also used as a means to detect infected trees, but there is still a need for more effective techniques.  “A large team of dogs can do maybe 1,000 acres a day, and we’ve got 300,000 acres of commercial citrus. So I think we need a multitude of techniques,” Grafton-Cardwell said.

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Copied from: PestNet

The “big rust’s” impact on coffee disease management Coffee rust has made significant headlines in recent years for its devastating effect on coffee crops. According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), losses in Latin America and the Caribbean alone have totaled well over $1 billion, causing hardship to coffee plantations, their labourers, coffee retailers, and the consumers who pay more for their morning coffee.

But this fungal disease, also known as “the big rust,” has a much longer and more encompassing history that goes all the way back to its discovery in 1869. This history is reviewed in detail through a new Phytopathology article entitled, “The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research,” written by Stuart McCook, historian at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, and John Vandermeer, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Michigan, USA.

In this essay, the authors discuss the big rust in a broader historical context, chronicling coffee rust epidemics, the social and ecological conditions that produced them, and the evolving scientific responses to this threat. The article highlights the many innovations used to combat coffee disease outbreaks, such as the efforts to develop disease-resistant plants, chemical and agroecological control, and even a network of international coffee research institutes. It also incorporates the broader social and economic histories of coffee production into particular stories of rust epidemics and rust research. The article also points out examples of the current research and disease mitigation challenges in developing nations versus affluent parts of the world.

By taking this broad perspective, the authors suggest we are entering a new phase in the global history of the coffee rust.

“Up until the mid-1980s, the story of the coffee rust was largely the story of invasions, as the disease spread into regions where it was not previously present,” McCook said. “By the mid-1980s, however, the disease had reached almost every coffee-producing region in the world.”

“For a brief while, in the 1980s and 1990s, it looked as if coffee farmers-with the help of scientists-had adapted to the disease, making it ‘just another disease’ on the farm. But we suggest that this fragile equilibrium has begun to break down, both because of broader ecological changes that we are only beginning to understand, and also because of increasing volatility in the global coffee economy,” he said.

Read this paper in the September 2015 issue of Phytopathology.

(Phytopathology News, November 2015)

http://www.isppweb.org/nldec15.asp#2

 

 

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tuta S americantuta tomato  imgjex3jsdy
The 18th International Plant Protection Congress will be held in Berlin, Germany, August 24-27, 2015. In this congress, there will be a workshop on “Management of the South American Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta” on August 25, 2015 starting at 7.30 pm and lasting three hours.
This workshop will review the biology, spread, damage, monitoring and the control tactics including regulatory, physical, cultural, chemical and biological methods. There will be a discussion on current Tuta absoluta projects worldwide and the possible initiation of national, regional and global projects for the management of T. absoluta and the current and potential role of donor agencies.

For information contact:

Prof. Rangaswamy Muniappan
IAPPS Coordinator
Region XIII: North America

rmuni@vt.edu

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Fresh Plaza

http://www.freshplaza.com/article/138186/Fruit-fly-detected-in-Puerto-Rico?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_medium=ed5&utm_source=s4

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Puerto Rico is readying control and eradication protocols after the first-ever detection on the island of the Mediterranean fruit fly, one of the world’s most destructive agricultural pests.

Hector Cordero, president of the Puerto Rico Farmers Association, told Efe that the initiative is a response to the appearance in the southwestern municipality of Cabo Rojo of two Mediterranean flies, long present in the nearby Dominican Republic.

The Puerto Rico government is receiving advice from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service on control and eradication measures.

“The goal is to prevent the impact of pests such as the coffee rust or the banana black sigatoka that in the 1990s caused damage to the Puerto Rican agriculture,” Cordero said, adding that the lack of timely action in the face of the previous pests may have been a factor in their spread.

Francisco Aponte, Puerto Rico’s deputy agriculture secretary, said USDA officials detected the flies during an inspection last month.

The pest can damage tomato, mango, avocado, coffee, papaya and cantaloupe, all of which are cultivated in Puerto Rico, Aponte said.

Authorities in Puerto Rico have established contact with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to obtain approval for the use of the recommended pesticides.

Source: http://www.laht.com

Publication date: 4/13/2015

 

 

 

 

 

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Fresh Plaza

http://www.freshplaza.com/article/137531/QLD-Good-news-for-banana-growers-as-TR4-contained?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_medium=ed5&utm_source=s1

 

Banana growers have started to breathe a sigh of relief, but are continuing to spend money on quarantine measures as news broke that the plants infected with Panama Tropical Race 4 (TR4) disease have been killed, and no new infectious plants have been identified from samples taken. “We’ve spent $100,000 in the last three weeks putting in quarantine measures. We’re trying to quarantine our two properties we have,” said Tully banana grower Martin Buchanan, whose property is in the area around the infected farm. “Everybody should be made to do it. It should be mandatory.”

Biosecurity Queensland have had almost 70 people working on the response since the beginning of March with a further 20 people joining the effort on Monday. An Australian Banana Growers’ Council (ABGC) field officer and assistant on Saturday destroyed the 10 infected plants and 200 surrounding plants on behalf of the family that owns the infected farm. The plants are being injected and left onsite. “The plants are being injected with chemicals to reduce any risk of disease spread and they will be left onsite. “We will continue to monitor the farm and surrounding area for any further signs of the disease in the weeks and months ahead,” said Chief Biosecurity Officer Dr Jim Thompson.

A total of 16,000 plants on a 10-hectare section of the quarantined farm are expected to be destroyed to help prevent the spread of the Panama TR4 pathogen. The farm is 240 hectares with about 160 hectares planted with bananas. That will require sustained effort from banana growers on the Cassowary Coast and other North Queensland growing regions, many of whom have been attending meetings in the regions at Tully, Innisfail and Mareeba to receive updates on the situation, and find out what they should be doing to protect their farms.

Mr Buchanan said that the meetings have been ‘good at keeping people up to date’ however some growers were still unsure about correct procedures for some decontamination measures, for example the correct chemicals to use to wash down vehicles.

Both the ABGC and Biosecurity Queensland have made resources available to assist farmers to ensure they follow the ‘come clean, leave clean’ directive, and ABGC Chairman Doug Phillips offered his thanks to growers for their cooperation, and expressed cautious optimism at the news that there have been no other plants in the North Queensland growing regions that have tested positive for Panama TR4, from 150 samples sent for testing. The only ones to test positive were from the infected plants on the quarantined farm. “It’s very encouraging that there have been no detections of TR4 on other banana farms,” Mr Phillips said. “Surveillance and testing is continuing and we would ask growers to continue to report any plants that may appear to have TR4 symptoms.”

Publication date: 3/31/2015
Author: Kalianna Dean
Copyright: http://www.freshplaza.com

 

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USAIDLogoExLgipm crsp logo

This report presents the conclusions and recommendations from the ‘Sensitizing workshop on Tuta absoluta: An impending threat to tomato production”, held in Lalitpur on March 13. Purpose of this workshop was to educate stakeholders regarding the impending threat of Tuta absoluta and the importance of monitoring to prevent its invasion and spread.
Tomato is the most important vegetable crop in Nepal. The tomato leafminer, a native of South America, was accidentally introduced in to Spain in 2006. Since then it has invaded to other European, North African, and Mediterranean countries. Now that it has just been reported in India, there are no natural barriers to its spread into Nepal. It is a devastating pest of tomato, and if no control measures are taken, it will likely cause up to 80-100% yield losses. The exceptional speed and extent to which it has invaded several countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa leads us to believe that it will soon invade Nepal. Tomato is the preferred host even though it can develop on other solanaceous host plants such as eggplant, potato, pepper, tobacco, nightshade, and Jimson weed.
The workshop was hosted by the International Development Enterprises (iDE Nepal) funded through the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab. The program was chaired by Dr. Min Nath Poudyal, Planning Director, Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC). Forty seven participants attended, including major scientists and experts from different organizations e.g. DoA, NARC, University professors, private companies, USAID representative and other related stakeholders. The list of workshop participants is attached in the Annex. Dr. Muni Muniappan gave a key note speech on Tuta absoluta- its biology, plants affected by it, its geographical distribution, and its economic impact; monitoring and control methods; and the detection, and management of recent outbreaks.

 

Tuta absoluta

Link to the Tuta absoluta workshop flyer: http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmil/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Report-Tuta-absoluta-Workshop.pdf

Reported by: SULAV PAUDEL | IPM Program Coordinator | iDE Nepal
PO Box: 2674, Kathmandu, Nepal
Office: 00977-01-5520943 (Ext: 207) Cell: 9857011122
spaudel@idenepal.org | sulavpaudel111@gmail.com

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