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The “big rust’s” impact on coffee disease management Coffee rust has made significant headlines in recent years for its devastating effect on coffee crops. According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), losses in Latin America and the Caribbean alone have totaled well over $1 billion, causing hardship to coffee plantations, their labourers, coffee retailers, and the consumers who pay more for their morning coffee.

But this fungal disease, also known as “the big rust,” has a much longer and more encompassing history that goes all the way back to its discovery in 1869. This history is reviewed in detail through a new Phytopathology article entitled, “The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research,” written by Stuart McCook, historian at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, and John Vandermeer, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Michigan, USA.

In this essay, the authors discuss the big rust in a broader historical context, chronicling coffee rust epidemics, the social and ecological conditions that produced them, and the evolving scientific responses to this threat. The article highlights the many innovations used to combat coffee disease outbreaks, such as the efforts to develop disease-resistant plants, chemical and agroecological control, and even a network of international coffee research institutes. It also incorporates the broader social and economic histories of coffee production into particular stories of rust epidemics and rust research. The article also points out examples of the current research and disease mitigation challenges in developing nations versus affluent parts of the world.

By taking this broad perspective, the authors suggest we are entering a new phase in the global history of the coffee rust.

“Up until the mid-1980s, the story of the coffee rust was largely the story of invasions, as the disease spread into regions where it was not previously present,” McCook said. “By the mid-1980s, however, the disease had reached almost every coffee-producing region in the world.”

“For a brief while, in the 1980s and 1990s, it looked as if coffee farmers-with the help of scientists-had adapted to the disease, making it ‘just another disease’ on the farm. But we suggest that this fragile equilibrium has begun to break down, both because of broader ecological changes that we are only beginning to understand, and also because of increasing volatility in the global coffee economy,” he said.

Read this paper in the September 2015 issue of Phytopathology.

(Phytopathology News, November 2015)

http://www.isppweb.org/nldec15.asp#2

 

 

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tuta S americantuta tomato  imgjex3jsdy
The 18th International Plant Protection Congress will be held in Berlin, Germany, August 24-27, 2015. In this congress, there will be a workshop on “Management of the South American Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta” on August 25, 2015 starting at 7.30 pm and lasting three hours.
This workshop will review the biology, spread, damage, monitoring and the control tactics including regulatory, physical, cultural, chemical and biological methods. There will be a discussion on current Tuta absoluta projects worldwide and the possible initiation of national, regional and global projects for the management of T. absoluta and the current and potential role of donor agencies.

For information contact:

Prof. Rangaswamy Muniappan
IAPPS Coordinator
Region XIII: North America

rmuni@vt.edu

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Fresh Plaza

http://www.freshplaza.com/article/138186/Fruit-fly-detected-in-Puerto-Rico?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_medium=ed5&utm_source=s4

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Puerto Rico is readying control and eradication protocols after the first-ever detection on the island of the Mediterranean fruit fly, one of the world’s most destructive agricultural pests.

Hector Cordero, president of the Puerto Rico Farmers Association, told Efe that the initiative is a response to the appearance in the southwestern municipality of Cabo Rojo of two Mediterranean flies, long present in the nearby Dominican Republic.

The Puerto Rico government is receiving advice from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service on control and eradication measures.

“The goal is to prevent the impact of pests such as the coffee rust or the banana black sigatoka that in the 1990s caused damage to the Puerto Rican agriculture,” Cordero said, adding that the lack of timely action in the face of the previous pests may have been a factor in their spread.

Francisco Aponte, Puerto Rico’s deputy agriculture secretary, said USDA officials detected the flies during an inspection last month.

The pest can damage tomato, mango, avocado, coffee, papaya and cantaloupe, all of which are cultivated in Puerto Rico, Aponte said.

Authorities in Puerto Rico have established contact with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to obtain approval for the use of the recommended pesticides.

Source: http://www.laht.com

Publication date: 4/13/2015

 

 

 

 

 

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Fresh Plaza

http://www.freshplaza.com/article/137531/QLD-Good-news-for-banana-growers-as-TR4-contained?utm_campaign=newsletter&utm_medium=ed5&utm_source=s1

 

Banana growers have started to breathe a sigh of relief, but are continuing to spend money on quarantine measures as news broke that the plants infected with Panama Tropical Race 4 (TR4) disease have been killed, and no new infectious plants have been identified from samples taken. “We’ve spent $100,000 in the last three weeks putting in quarantine measures. We’re trying to quarantine our two properties we have,” said Tully banana grower Martin Buchanan, whose property is in the area around the infected farm. “Everybody should be made to do it. It should be mandatory.”

Biosecurity Queensland have had almost 70 people working on the response since the beginning of March with a further 20 people joining the effort on Monday. An Australian Banana Growers’ Council (ABGC) field officer and assistant on Saturday destroyed the 10 infected plants and 200 surrounding plants on behalf of the family that owns the infected farm. The plants are being injected and left onsite. “The plants are being injected with chemicals to reduce any risk of disease spread and they will be left onsite. “We will continue to monitor the farm and surrounding area for any further signs of the disease in the weeks and months ahead,” said Chief Biosecurity Officer Dr Jim Thompson.

A total of 16,000 plants on a 10-hectare section of the quarantined farm are expected to be destroyed to help prevent the spread of the Panama TR4 pathogen. The farm is 240 hectares with about 160 hectares planted with bananas. That will require sustained effort from banana growers on the Cassowary Coast and other North Queensland growing regions, many of whom have been attending meetings in the regions at Tully, Innisfail and Mareeba to receive updates on the situation, and find out what they should be doing to protect their farms.

Mr Buchanan said that the meetings have been ‘good at keeping people up to date’ however some growers were still unsure about correct procedures for some decontamination measures, for example the correct chemicals to use to wash down vehicles.

Both the ABGC and Biosecurity Queensland have made resources available to assist farmers to ensure they follow the ‘come clean, leave clean’ directive, and ABGC Chairman Doug Phillips offered his thanks to growers for their cooperation, and expressed cautious optimism at the news that there have been no other plants in the North Queensland growing regions that have tested positive for Panama TR4, from 150 samples sent for testing. The only ones to test positive were from the infected plants on the quarantined farm. “It’s very encouraging that there have been no detections of TR4 on other banana farms,” Mr Phillips said. “Surveillance and testing is continuing and we would ask growers to continue to report any plants that may appear to have TR4 symptoms.”

Publication date: 3/31/2015
Author: Kalianna Dean
Copyright: http://www.freshplaza.com

 

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USAIDLogoExLgipm crsp logo

This report presents the conclusions and recommendations from the ‘Sensitizing workshop on Tuta absoluta: An impending threat to tomato production”, held in Lalitpur on March 13. Purpose of this workshop was to educate stakeholders regarding the impending threat of Tuta absoluta and the importance of monitoring to prevent its invasion and spread.
Tomato is the most important vegetable crop in Nepal. The tomato leafminer, a native of South America, was accidentally introduced in to Spain in 2006. Since then it has invaded to other European, North African, and Mediterranean countries. Now that it has just been reported in India, there are no natural barriers to its spread into Nepal. It is a devastating pest of tomato, and if no control measures are taken, it will likely cause up to 80-100% yield losses. The exceptional speed and extent to which it has invaded several countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa leads us to believe that it will soon invade Nepal. Tomato is the preferred host even though it can develop on other solanaceous host plants such as eggplant, potato, pepper, tobacco, nightshade, and Jimson weed.
The workshop was hosted by the International Development Enterprises (iDE Nepal) funded through the Feed the Future Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab. The program was chaired by Dr. Min Nath Poudyal, Planning Director, Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC). Forty seven participants attended, including major scientists and experts from different organizations e.g. DoA, NARC, University professors, private companies, USAID representative and other related stakeholders. The list of workshop participants is attached in the Annex. Dr. Muni Muniappan gave a key note speech on Tuta absoluta- its biology, plants affected by it, its geographical distribution, and its economic impact; monitoring and control methods; and the detection, and management of recent outbreaks.

 

Tuta absoluta

Link to the Tuta absoluta workshop flyer: http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmil/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Report-Tuta-absoluta-Workshop.pdf

Reported by: SULAV PAUDEL | IPM Program Coordinator | iDE Nepal
PO Box: 2674, Kathmandu, Nepal
Office: 00977-01-5520943 (Ext: 207) Cell: 9857011122
spaudel@idenepal.org | sulavpaudel111@gmail.com

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West Hawaii Today

Posted February 25, 2015 – 6:14am

coffee borer Hawaii

A coffee berry borer-infested coffee bean and cherry is shown. (Chelsea Jensen/West Hawaii Today)A coffee berry borer-infested coffee bean and cherry is shown. (Chelsea Jensen/West Hawaii Today)

The Hawaii Board of Agriculture on Tuesday voted to place coffee grown on all areas of Oahu under the same quarantine restrictions as previously enacted for the Waialua area and Hawaii Island in an effort to prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer.

On Dec. 17, 2014, the board placed coffee grown at Waialua Estate Coffee Farms and coffee roasted at the Old Waialua Sugar Mill under the same quarantine restrictions as coffee grown on Hawaii Island after the detection of CBB. Since the initial detection in Waialua, CBB has been found in Wahiawa and Poamoho in Central Oahu.

The board’s unanimous vote on Tuesday expands the designated infested area and extends the interisland quarantine restrictions to all of Oahu beginning Wednesday, Feb. 25.

“Expanding the coffee quarantine safeguards to cover Oahu is an important step in helping to keep other coffee-growing islands free of the coffee berry borer,” said Scott Enright, chairperson of the agriculture board. “Oahu is a hub for the state’s coffee trade and we need to make sure that coffee beans that are imported to, as well as exported from Oahu are not spreading this destructive pest.”

So far, CBB (Hypothenemus hampei) has not been detected on Maui, Kauai, Molokai and Lanai.

The quarantine restrictions imposed for Oahu are equivalent to those in effect for coffee from Hawaii Island since December 2010. It requires a permit from the agriculture department to transport unroasted coffee beans, coffee plants and plant parts, used coffee bags and coffee harvesting equipment from CBB-infested islands to other noninfested areas or islands to prevent CBB movement.

The rules also require certain treatments and inspection by state Plant Quarantine inspectors prior to shipping. Inspectors will either attach a tag, label or stamp to indicate the shipment passed inspection requirements. For unroasted coffee beans, acceptable treatment protocols include fumigation, freezing and heat treatment. The coffee beans must also be roasted at a facility that is at least five miles from any commercial coffee-growing area.

One of the most devastating coffee pests, CBB was first detected in September 2010 in Kona and discovered in Ka’u in May 2011. This small beetle bores into the coffee cherry where is lays its eggs. The larvae feed on the coffee bean, reducing the yield and quality of the bean.

CBB is native to Central Africa and is also found in many coffee-growing regions of the world, including Central and South America.

– See more at: http://westhawaiitoday.com/community-bulletin/quarantine-restrictions-extended-all-oahu-grown-coffee#sthash.GwfLK9dR.4KyY2BW6.dpuf

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Philippine Information Agency

October 14, 2014

LEGAZPI CITY, Oct 14 (PIA) – The Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) has been stepping up its information campaign, monitoring and eradication operations as key strategies in strengthening defense against the threat of Coconut Scale Insect (CSI) or cocolisap infestation in the Bicol region.

PCA Bicol regional manager Mateo Zipagan said part of these strategies is the creation and training of the Bicol CSI Task Force held on October 8-9 at the PCA Albay Research Center in Banao, Guinobatan Albay to further strengthen their stand against the threat of CSI spread in the region.

“This activity aims to strengthen our stand against the threat of CSI spread in all fronts. Focal persons from all provinces and partner agencies in the region will be part of the task force and our field team whenever surveillance and control operations are to be done,” Zipagan said.

He revealed that nine coconut trees in Sta Elena and Del Gallego have been identified as infected with cocolisap but is now under control after conducting trunk injection further noting that a defense line has been established to prevent further spread and ensure proper monitoring.

Quarantine operations has likewise been conducted in the region to prevent the spread of CSI from infested to non-infested areas as specified under Executive Order No. 169.

The said EO aims to establish emergency measures to control and manage the spread and damage of Aspidiotus rigidus or cocolisap in the country designating the PCA as the lead agency for the purpose.

“Land and seaport checkpoints have been established in all provinces in the region manned by deputized plant quarantine inspector (PQI) and quarantine guards,” Zipagan said.

From the said checkpoints, he cited the interception and return to origin of 500 pieces coconut seedlings and 60 pieces mango seedlings from Unisan, Quezon and confiscation and burning of 30 pieces infested coconut seedlings from Gumaca, Quezon to Macahadoc, Sta Elena, Camarines Norte.

CSI outbreak has been declared in Batangas, Cavite, Laguna and Quezon.

CCA senior science research specialist Johana Orense said infestation of CSI anchored in masses on the underside of infested leaflet involves yellowing and wilting of infested leaves and eventual drying at advanced stage.

“Among the visible damages are lesser and undersized nuts, shorter leaves and discolored leaflets due to drying and reduced photosynthetic activity,” she said.

Orense noted that among the factors that can trigger pest outbreak factors are temperature, relative humidity, pollutants level, climate change, planting density, susceptibility of host plants and population imbalance of the pest and natural enemies.

“If all the environmental factors favorable to CSI outbreak are met and no interventions or treatment will be made, then an outbreak will most likely occur within a 15 kilometer radius from the focus of infestation in less than a year,” she explained.

Three species of beetles and wasps identified as natural enemies of cocolisap are being mass-produced in the laboratories of PCA and Regional Crop Protection Center.

“These natural enemies are being released to control the population of cocolisap and restore a balanced ecosystem,” Orense said.(MAL/SAA-PIA5/Albay)

– See more at: http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/2571413251176/pca-steps-up-defense-to-curb-threat-of-cocolisap-infestation-in-bicol#sth

 

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