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Archive for the ‘Plant Pathogens’ Category

Cabbage is an important crop in Ghana where it grows all year round, right across the country. It is mainly grown for commercial production in Southern Ghana, in Akwapim and Kwahu areas and in the moist high elevations around Tarkwa. Growing cabbage in Ghana is challenging since it can be attacked by a variety of […]

via Cabbage disease mystery in Ghana — The Plantwise Blog

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For Conference details see:  http://www.acpp2017.org

korea-170220_%ec%98%a8%eb%9d%bc%ec%9d%b8%eb%b2%a0%eb%84%88-%ec%99%84%eb%a3%8c_out

Invitation

On behalf of the Asian Conference on Plant Pathology 2017 (ACPP 2017) organizing committee, we would like to invite you to attend the ACPP 2017, which will be held at International Convention Center in Jeju, South Korea, from September 13 to 16, 2017.

Asia is the most populous continent. Over 60% of human population live in this continent and the population of Asian will be increased for the next tens of years. Now we are faced with lots of threats, such as climate changes, epidemic of plant diseases, and environmental pollutions, to disturb sustainable supply of foods and natural resources for diverse industries. Considering it, plant disease is a significant threat to food security for many nations. It is therefore imperative to devise the novel and stable control strategies for plant disease, which requires understanding of plant pathogens and interaction between host and pathogen. Asian Conference of Plant Pathology (ACPP) has been the forum to foster collaboration among scientists around the world, especially Asia. Not surprisingly, much progress has taken place in a wide range of research topics on the biology, genomics, host-pathogen interactions, resistance, and disease management. To share the recent advancement in scientific researches and to broaden our understanding of plant diseases, we host the 6th ACPP in beautiful island of South Korea, Jeju. We cordially invite you to this exciting meeting held in the UNESCO Heritage and the New 7 Wonders of Nature!

The meeting promises to be an exciting venue to update you on most topics of plant pathology, from diagnosis to biotechnology. It is anticipated that over 700 participants will attend the conference, providing a unique opportunity to promote scientific collaboration. Welcome reception and conference dinner will also be held during the conference.

Please register for the meeting and submit your abstract for presentation or for poster. The various deadlines for the meeting will be posted on the 6th ACPP website at http://acpp2017.org.

The conference will start on Wednesday, September 13, 2017. Please plant to arrive in International Convention Center the afternoon or evening of Tuesday, September 12, 2017. Please let us know if you need any further assistance for your travel arrangements and we will look forward to seeing you in Jeju, South Korea.

Heung-Tae Kim

Yong-Hwan Lee

Chairperson

President

Conference Organizing Committee of the ACPP 2017

The Korean Society of Plant Pathology

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Spread of damaging wheat rust continues: new races found in Europe, Africa, Central Asia

Mediterranean particularly affected by new rust races

Photo: ©FAO/ Fazil Dusunceli

Wheat experts examine a research plot near Izmir, Turkey, affected by wheat yellow rust.

3 February 2017, Rome −  Wheat rust, a family of fungal diseases that can cause crop losses of up to 100 percent in untreated susceptible wheats, is making further advances in Europe, Africa and Asia, according to two new studies produced by scientists in collaboration with FAO.

The reports, highlighted in the journal Nature following their publication by Aarhus University and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), show the emergence of new races of both yellow rust and stem rust in various regions of the world in 2016.

At the same time, well-known existing rust races have spread to new countries, the studies confirm, underlining the need for early detection and action to limit major damage to wheat production, particularly in the Mediterranean basin.

Wheat is a source of food and livelihoods for over 1 billion people in developing countries. Northern and Eastern Africa, the Near East, and West, Central and South Asia – which are all vulnerable to rust diseases − alone account for some 37 percent of global wheat production.

“These new, aggressive rust races have emerged at the same time that we’re working with international partners to help countries combat the existing ones, so we have to be swift and thorough in the way we approach this,” said FAO Plant Pathologist Fazil Dusunceli. “It’s more important than ever that specialists from international institutions and wheat producing countries work together to stop these diseases in their tracks −  that involves continuous surveillance, sharing data and building emergency response plans to protect their farmers and those in neighboring countries.”

Wheat rusts spread rapidly over long distances by wind. If not detected and treated on time, they can turn a healthy looking crop, only weeks away from harvest, into a tangle of yellow leaves, black stems and shriveled grains.

Fungicides can help to limit damage, but early detection and rapid action are crucial. So are integrated management strategies in the long run.

wheat_stem-rust_1Stem rust

Mediterranean most affected by new rusts

On the Italian island of Sicily, a new race of the stem rust pathogen −called TTTTF− hit several thousands of hectares of durum wheat in 2016, causing the largest stem rust outbreak that Europe has seen in decades. Experience with similar races suggests that bread wheat varieties may also be susceptible to the new race.

TTTTF is the most recently identified race of stem rust. Without proper control, researchers caution, it could soon spread over long distances along the Mediterranean basin and the Adriatic coast.

Various countries across Africa, Central Asia and Europe, meanwhile, have been battling new strains of yellow rust never before been seen in their fields.

Italy, Morocco and four Scandinavian countries have seen the emergence of an entirely new, yet-to-be-named race of yellow rust. Notably, the new race was most prevalent in Morocco and Sicily, where yellow rust until recently was considered insignificant. Preliminary analysis suggests the new race is related to a family of strains that are aggressive and better adapted to higher temperatures than most others.

Wheat farmers in Ethiopia and Uzbekistan, at the same time, have been fighting outbreaks of yellow rust AF2012, another race which reared its head in both countries in 2016 and struck a major blow to Ethiopian wheat production in particular. AF2012 was previously only found in Afghanistan, before appearing in the Horn of Africa country last year, where it affected tens of thousands of hectares of wheat.

“Preliminary assessments are worrisome, but it is still unclear what the full impact of these new races will be on different wheat varieties in the affected regions,” said Dusunceli. “That’s what research institutions across these regions will need to further investigate in the coming months.”

To offer support, FAO, in collaboration with its partners, is stepping up its efforts in training rust experts from affected countries to boost their ability to detect and manage these emerging wheat rust races.

As new races emerge, old ones continue to spread

The already established Warrior(-) race of yellow rust − which came onto scientists’ radars in Northern Europe and Turkey a few years ago −  continued its aerial march in 2016 and is now widely present in Europe and West Asia.

The Digalu (TIFTTF) race of stem rust continues to devastate wheats in Ethiopia, while the most well-known race of stem rust – the highly potent Ug99 – is now present in 13 countries. Having spread in a northward trend from East Africa to the Middle East, Ug99 has the potential to affect many wheat varieties grown worldwide as it keeps producing new variants. Most recently, it has been detected in Egypt, one of the Middle East’s most important wheat producers.

International collaboration crucial

The findings of the Aarhus study build on training sessions conducted in 2016 in collaboration between the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aarhus university, CIMMYT and FAO.

The training, which will be repeated this year, allows rust experts to strengthen their surveillance and management skills, coupled with surveys and collection of rust samples for tests and analysis by Aarhus University. The recently established Regional Cereal Rust Research in Izmir, Turkey, will host the training.

These efforts have been part of FAO`s four-year global wheat rust program, which facilitates regional collaborations and offers support to individual countries eager to boost their surveillance capacity.

It also helps countries act swiftly to control outbreaks before they turn into epidemics and cause major damage to food security. But further research, particularly into breeding resistant varieties, and national response plans need to be backed by adequate resources.

FAO, CIMMYT, ICARDA and Aarhus University are working together as members of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI).

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EurekAlert
Public Release: 6-Feb-2017

Help for national programs supporting smallholder farmers

International Potato Center / Centro Internacional de la Papa

“African communities are highly dependent on agriculture, which is vulnerable to unpredictable changes in climatic conditions,” said Dr. Jürgen Kroschel, CIP’s Agroecology and Integrated Pest Management science leader. “Any increase in temperature caused by climate change will have drastic effects on pest invasions and outbreaks affecting pest management, crop production and food security.”

Climate change will exacerbate existing vulnerabilities of resource-constrained farmers who depend on agriculture for a living. CIP launched the Pest Risk Atlas for Africa to benefit researchers and extension workers involved in pest risk analysis and pest management. Ultimately, this information will create better awareness of current and future pest risks under climate change and promote the inclusion of pest risk adaptation plans at country level. Consequently, it may lead to the adaptation of sustainable pest control methods that are not overly dependent on pesticides and therefore are best suited for farmers in Africa to improve their food security and daily lives under future climates.

In its global pest management research efforts, CIP’s Agroecology and Integrated Pest Management program developed a scientific framework based on advanced pest phenology modeling and Geographic Information System risk mapping to better understand future pest risks on global, regional, and local scales and to use this information for adaptation planning.

The Pest Risk Atlas for Africa provides detailed information for pest risk analysis including:

  • Detection and identification, morphology, and biology with an emphasis on temperature-dependent development
  • Means of movement and dispersal, economic impact, geographical distribution, and phytosanitary risks
  • Risk mapping under current and future climates: global risk and regional risks for Africa with individual country risk maps
  • Phytosanitary measures and adaptation to risk avoidance at farm level.

On average, 30-50% of the yield losses in agricultural crops are caused by pests, despite the application of pesticides to control them. Climate, especially temperature, has a strong and direct influence on the development and growth of insect pest populations. A rise in temperature due to climate change may both increase or decrease pest development rates. Hence, an increase in temperature can potentially affect range expansion and outbreaks of many insect pests. Therefore, if adequate integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are not developed and made available to farmers, greater losses in crop yield and quality could ultimately result.

Natural enemies play an important role in managing pests and are often used in classical biocontrol programs to manage invasive non-indigenous pests. It is important to better understand how climate change will affect this trophic level and how crop management can build and rely on biocontrol strategies. The Pest Atlas for Africa includes important data and mapping information to better use this powerful pest management option.

###

The Pest Risk Atlas for Africa is now available online at http://cipotato.org/riskatlasforafrica/and will be periodically updated and enriched with new pest chapters. All individual pest and biocontrol agent chapters can be downloaded for free. It also contains interactivity that allows users to zoom into maps, and do quick searches for specific information.

The International Potato Center, known by its Spanish acronym CIP, was founded in 1971 as a root and tuber research-for-development institution delivering sustainable solutions to the pressing world problems of hunger, poverty, and the degradation of natural resources. CIP is truly a global center, with headquarters in Lima, Peru and offices in 20 developing countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Working closely with our partners, CIP seeks to achieve food security, increased well-being, and gender equity for poor people in the developing world. CIP furthers its mission through rigorous research, innovation in science and technology, and capacity strengthening regarding root and tuber farming and food systems.

CIP is part of the CGIAR Systems Organization, a global partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for a food secure future. CGIAR research is dedicated to reducing rural poverty, increasing food security, improving human health and nutrition, and ensuring more sustainable management of natural resources. Donors include individual countries, major foundations, and international entities.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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IBIS daily digest

Morning Agclips

WHEAT DISEASE …

Found in Europe, Africa, Central Asia; Mediterranean particularly impacted

Wheat experts examine a research plot near Izmir, Turkey, affected by wheat yellow rust. (Courtesy Photo)

 

ROME — Wheat rust, a family of fungal diseases that can cause crop losses of up to 100 percent in untreated susceptible wheats, is making further advances in Europe, Africa and Asia, according to two new studies produced by scientists in collaboration with FAO.

The reports, highlighted in the journal Nature following their publication by Aarhus University and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), show the emergence of new races of both yellow rust and stem rust in various regions of the world in 2016.

At the same time, well-known existing rust races have spread to new countries, the studies confirm, underlining the need for early detection and action to limit major damage to wheat production, particularly in the Mediterranean basin.

Wheat is a source of food and livelihoods for over 1 billion people in developing countries. Northern and Eastern Africa, the Near East, and West, Central and South Asia – which are all vulnerable to rust diseases − alone account for some 37 percent of global wheat production.

“These new, aggressive rust races have emerged at the same time that we’re working with international partners to help countries combat the existing ones, so we have to be swift and thorough in the way we approach this,” said FAO Plant Pathologist Fazil Dusunceli. “It’s more important than ever that specialists from international institutions and wheat producing countries work together to stop these diseases in their tracks −  that involves continuous surveillance, sharing data and building emergency response plans to protect their farmers and those in neighboring countries.”

Wheat rusts spread rapidly over long distances by wind. If not detected and treated on time, they can turn a healthy looking crop, only weeks away from harvest, into a tangle of yellow leaves, black stems and shriveled grains.

Fungicides can help to limit damage, but early detection and rapid action are crucial. So are integrated management strategies in the long run.

Mediterranean most affected by new rusts

On the Italian island of Sicily, a new race of the stem rust pathogen −called TTTTF− hit several thousands of hectares of durum wheat in 2016, causing the largest stem rust outbreak that Europe has seen in decades. Experience with similar races suggests that bread wheat varieties may also be susceptible to the new race.

TTTTF is the most recently identified race of stem rust. Without proper control, researchers caution, it could soon spread over long distances along the Mediterranean basin and the Adriatic coast.

Various countries across Africa, Central Asia and Europe, meanwhile, have been battling new strains of yellow rust never before been seen in their fields.

Italy, Morocco and four Scandinavian countries have seen the emergence of an entirely new, yet-to-be-named race of yellow rust. Notably, the new race was most prevalent in Morocco and Sicily, where yellow rust until recently was considered insignificant. Preliminary analysis suggests the new race is related to a family of strains that are aggressive and better adapted to higher temperatures than most others.

Wheat farmers in Ethiopia and Uzbekistan, at the same time, have been fighting outbreaks of yellow rust AF2012, another race which reared its head in both countries in 2016 and struck a major blow to Ethiopian wheat production in particular. AF2012 was previously only found in Afghanistan, before appearing in the Horn of Africa country last year, where it affected tens of thousands of hectares of wheat.

“Preliminary assessments are worrisome, but it is still unclear what the full impact of these new races will be on different wheat varieties in the affected regions,” said Dusunceli. “That’s what research institutions across these regions will need to further investigate in the coming months.”

To offer support, FAO, in collaboration with its partners, is stepping up its efforts in training rust experts from affected countries to boost their ability to detect and manage these emerging wheat rust races.

As new races emerge, old ones continue to spread

The already established Warrior(-) race of yellow rust − which came onto scientists’ radars in Northern Europe and Turkey a few years ago −  continued its aerial march in 2016 and is now widely present in Europe and West Asia.

The Digalu (TIFTTF) race of stem rust continues to devastate wheats in Ethiopia, while the most well-known race of stem rust – the highly potent Ug99 – is now present in 13 countries. Having spread in a northward trend from East Africa to the Middle East, Ug99 has the potential to affect many wheat varieties grown worldwide as it keeps producing new variants. Most recently, it has been detected in Egypt, one of the Middle East’s most important wheat producers.

International collaboration crucial

The findings of the Aarhus study build on training sessions conducted in 2016 in collaboration between the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aarhus university, CIMMYT and FAO.

The training, which will be repeated this year, allows rust experts to strengthen their surveillance and management skills, coupled with surveys and collection of rust samples for tests and analysis by Aarhus University. The recently established Regional Cereal Rust Research in Izmir, Turkey, will host the training.

These efforts have been part of FAO`s four-year global wheat rust program, which facilitates regional collaborations and offers support to individual countries eager to boost their surveillance capacity.

It also helps countries act swiftly to control outbreaks before they turn into epidemics and cause major damage to food security. But further research, particularly into breeding resistant varieties, and national response plans need to be backed by adequate resources.

FAO, CIMMYT, ICARDA and Aarhus University are working together as members of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI).

–FAO

– See more at: https://www.morningagclips.com/spread-of-damaging-wheat-rust-continues/#sthash.xFba0wMD.dpuf

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citrus-greening-university-florida-asd

Florida’s citrus production continues to plummet

USDA predicted Jan. 12 Florida will produce 71 million boxes of oranges for the 2016-2017 season, which is down more than 12 percent from the 81.5 million boxes harvested last season.

Farm Press Staff | Jan 12, 2017

The USDA predicted Jan. 12 Florida will produce 71 million boxes of oranges for the 2016-2017 season, which is down more than 12 percent from the 81.5 million boxes harvested last season.

If the forecast holds true, it represents a decline of more than 70 percent since the peak of citrus production at 244 million boxes during the 1997-98 season. The drastic reduction in citrus production in Florida is largely due to the citrus greening disease, which continues to plague citrus trees and the citrus industry with no long-term solution in sight.

“The future of Florida citrus, and the tens of thousands of jobs it supports, depends on a long-term solution in the fight against greening. Our brightest minds are working to find a solution, but until then, we must support our growers and provide them every tool available to combat this devastating disease,” said Florida Commissioner of Agriculture Adam H. Putnam in a statement Jan. 12.

In support of Florida’s growers and industry groups seeking approval from the Environmental Protection Agency for the use of certain antimicrobial treatments to combat greening, Putnam issued a crisis declaration in 2016 regarding their Section 18 application to the EPA, which allowed the immediate use of these treatments.

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R&D Magazine

Tue, 01/10/2017 – 2:42pm2 Comments

by Kenny Walter – Digital Reporter – 

@RandDMagazine

Researchers have begun to learn more about how viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and other arthropods.

Scientists have tapped into a new resource in the ongoing fight against viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and other arthropods.

In a new study, researchers have uncovered for the first time that a plant hormone is the major host factor to mediate the attractions between insect vectors and infected plants.

This discovery may lead to a new strategy to control viral diseases by targeting either the viral effector protein or the host hormone required for attracting disease vectors to the infected host for virus transmission.

The study was led by a team of scientists from the University of California, Riverside and Tsinghua University in China, who uncovered molecular mechanisms that the cucumber mosaic virus uses to manipulate plants to make them release odors that attract aphids, which transmit the virus.

“Recent studies have shown that pathogen-induced vector attraction can be odor-dependent, suggesting, presumably, the presence of a specific mechanism by which pathogens manipulate the host’s ability to emit odors that could attract disease vector,” the researchers write in the study.

Diseases like the cucumber mosaic virus are often caused by pathogens that are transmitted by disease carrying arthropods.

The emergence and success of these pathogens are shaped by molecular interactions between both the host and the arthropods.

Plants utilize RNA interference (RNAi) to protect themselves against diseases like the cucumber mosaic virus.

Shou-Wei Ding, Ph.D., a professor of plant pathology and microbiology at UC Riverside, previously discovered that the 2b protein in the cucumber mosaic virus blocks the plant from launching antiviral RNA interference.

Ding was able to build on the previous research by finding some pathogens that can manipulate plants and animals to cause them to release odors that are attractive to the mosquitoes and aphids that transmit the pathogen.

Until Ding’s study, the molecular mechanism underlying the host manipulation was unknown.

The science team found that the aphid-borne cucumber mosaic virus employs the 2b protein to suppress a specific hormone pathway in plants, making the aphid vectors more attracted to the diseased plant.

The cucumber mosaic virus, which is found worldwide, spreads rapidly and can cause irreversible damage to plants, including many used in landscaping and vegetable crops like tomatoes, peppers, lettuce and cucumbers.

However, the researchers said they can harness the virus to produce more disease resistant vegetables and larger crop yields for farmers.

This represents the first time a viral effector protein has been seen as attracting insect vectors to feed on plants through odor.

According to the study, the cucumber mosaic virus is one of the most successful plant pathogens as it can infect more than 1,200 different types of plant species.

The study was published in Cell Research.

 

Grahame Jackson
24 Alt street
Queens Park
NSW 2022
Australia

Phone: +612 9387 8030
Mobile: +61 412 994 206
Skype: gvhjackson

www.pestnet.org
www.ediblearoids.org
www.terracircle.org.au

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